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PSYC3890: Chapter 6

by: Brittany Ariana Borzillo

PSYC3890: Chapter 6 PSYC3980

Brittany Ariana Borzillo
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Chapter 6 book notes supplemented with class notes. First chapter that will be on our next test.
Research Methods in Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, Research Methodologies
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC3980 at University of Georgia taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
CHAPTER 6 SURVEY QUESTION FORMATS  Open-ended o respondents are allowed to write out anything they want  Forced-choice o pick between two options  Likert scale o scale with more than three options o Options range from strongly agree to strongly disagree  Semantic differential format o rank on a numeric scale using adjectives  Problems with Certain Formats o Leading questions  framing a question to get an answer the researcher wants o Double-barred questions  asks two questions in one o Double negatives o Question order  Earlier questions can change how individuals respond to latter questions  Could be solved by preparing different version of the survey, randomize question order PARTICIPANTS BIAS  Response sets o Mental short-cuts that causes bias in participants  Acquiescence  Yay-saying  Agree with every item  Nay-Saying  Disagreeing with every item  Fence-sitting  Being neural to every answer  Nay-saying and yay-saying can be reversed by incorporating reverse-worded questions  Ask the opposite of a question that has already been asked  You would assign a reverse score to a person’s answer to accommodate the scale of the survey  Fence-sitting can be corrected by removing the option of a neutral response  Socially desirable responding o respondent chooses items that make the respondent look good in the eyes of others o solved by emphasizing anonymity, maybe include filler items to hide real purpose PERFORMING RESEARCH  self-report o Many (many, many) psych studies use self-report measures  Very useful, easy to administer  But they have their pitfalls o Memories are imperfect  Flashbulb memories  a detailed and vivid memory that is stored on one occasion and retained for a lifetime  Perception ≠ reality o Biases listed here are not an exhaustive list—when reviewing a self- report measure  Reliability and validity of questions are still a concern  Make sure the responses match the context or and research question as well  Use inclusive language  Race/Ethnicity: Caucasian, Black, Asian… o Caucasian, African American, Asian… o White, Black, Asian… o Caucasian/White, African American/Black, Asian…  Observational research o alternative to self-report  Watch people’s behaviors and record actions o threats to construct validity  Observer Bias  Observers may record what they want to see, rather than what happens  Observer Effects (Expectancy Effects)  Observer changes the behavior of observed  Observer bias remedied by training observers, codebooks (for consistency), use multiple observers, or masked (blind) study design  Reactivity  occur when people change their behavior because they know they are being watched o Presence of observers may affect observed behaviors  Solutions o Unobtrusive observations o Wait it out o Examine behavioral results  Multiple observers  want reliable (consistent) observations


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