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Week 1, Lecture 1

by: gtan51097

Week 1, Lecture 1 01:830:310

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About this Document

Rutgers Neuropsychology with Prof. Estelle Mayhew. Meets Mon/Wed in Lucy Stone Hall. These notes are from just the first lecture, seeing as the second session was cancelled.
Dr. Estelle Mayhew
Class Notes
neuropsychology, history, trephination, brain, cardiac, mind, dualism, monism, materialism, localization, structure, function, Phrenology, equipotentiality, nervous, system, terminology, Anatomical Terminology, Anatomical directions/terms, planes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by gtan51097 on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:310 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Estelle Mayhew in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Neuropsychology in Psychology at Rutgers University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
9/12/2016 Ancient Neurosurgery  Trephination or trepanning – not uncommon  3 holes in skull as evidence  Surgery done in traumatic brain injury cases  brain swells  Brain can’t swell very far because encased in skull and could lead to death  Make hole in skull or take piece off to relieve swelling  Holes made by incision and then scrape away skull or drilling Where in body does behavior originate?  Cardiac hypothesis o Soul and action origin o Aristotle: heart is warm, brain is bloodless  Brain hypothesis o Hippocrates: body gets paralyzed on opposite side of injury o Galen: gladiator surgeon; nerves for sense organs go to brain; pressure on heart doesn’t stop voluntary movement; theory of humors (blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm) Structure of Brain?  Galen: wrote out his dissections on monkeys, basis for human anatomy  Vesalius: stole bodies of criminals and eventually got permission to anatomize them  Willis: interested in specifically the brain Where’s the mind?  Descartes: Dualism  mind is immaterial, brain is material o Causality problem: how does the mind cause body to move?  Materialism: everything is physical, no mind  Monism: Mind and brain identical  Dual aspect theory: mind is “inside view,” brain is outside Where in structure is function?  Localization of Function  Franz Joseph Gall o Annoyed by students w/ good medicine, but little creativity o Memory is behind eyes  Johann Casper Spurzheim o Map of mind Phrenology: Correlation between head bumps and character Broca & Wernicke  Broca had a patient who had TBI to front of head and then affected speech  Post-mortem autopsy and found major damage  concluded damaged area controlled speech  Wernicke disagreed  diff area  actually both right Equipotentiality  Pierre Flourens o Damaged diff parts of animal brain to see how behavior was affected o Took out cerebellum  no balance o Took out brain stem  animal died  Plasticity  damage one part, others can take over John Hughlings-Jackson & Alexander Romanovich Luria  Hierarchy of org o Higher functions higher in the brain o Lower functions lower in NS, brain stem  Synth of localization of function with equipotentiality o NS  3 units  Brain stem  Rear parts of cerebellum: occipital, temporal, parietal  process sensory info  Frontal: complex behavior, planning, execution o Potential of recovery if damaged Nervous System  CNS: encased by bone o Brain by skull o Spinal cord by vertebrae  PNS o Somatic: get info that comes through senses to brain  Afferent: towards brain  Efferent: away from brain o Autonomic: get sensation from outside; happens involuntarily  Afferent: pain, pressure, location, etc.  Efferent: Muscles, motion  Parasympathetic: relax  Sympathetic: “fight or flight” Directional Terminology  Ventral/inferior: towards stomach; towards torso  Dorsal/superior: towards back; top of head  Rostral/anterior: towards head; front of face  Caudal/posterior: towards tail; back of head  Medial: towards middle  Lateral: towards outside Planes  Coronal section-frontal view (cut front off)  Horizontal/transverse-Dorsal (cut top off)  Sagittal-Medial (cut in half between hemis)


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