Sensation and Perception, Week 4
Sensation and Perception, Week 4 Psych 101
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Social Science
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for Sensation and Perception, Week 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/16/16
Sensation and Perception Sensation sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment Perception organization and interpretation of sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Vision Eye Components Cornea Curved, transparent dome that bends incoming light Pupil Opening in the center of the iris that lets in light Iris Colored area containing muscles that control the pupil Lens Transparent disk that focuses light rays for near or distant vision Retina Innermost layer of the eye, where incoming light is converted into nerve impulses Fovea/macula The part of the retina where light rays are most sharply focused Blind spot Part of the visual field we can’t see because of an absence of rods and cones Pigment epithelium Allows us to see in dim light Photoreceptors Located in the retina Cones Rods Color No color 6 million per eye 120 million per eye center periphery not sensitive to dim light sensitive to dim light sensitive to detail not sensitive to detail Levels of processing 1. Rods and cones 2. Bipolar cells 3. Ganglion cells 4. Optic nerve 5. Thalamus 6. Visual cortex (occipital lobe) Color vision Trichromatic vision 3 types of color receptors (cones) sensitive to separate colors; red, blue, and green Opponentprocess theory opposing retinal processes (redgreen, yellowblue) enable color vision; for example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red and vice versa Perception Can be influenced by o Ambiguous stimuli o Context o Previous experience o Expectancies Form perception Figureground the organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground) Grouping the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups Proximity nearby objects go together Similarity similar objects go together Continuity we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous Connectedness when uniformed or linked we perceive items as a single unit Closure we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object Depth perception Binocular cues o Retinal disparity the greater the difference between the 2 images the retina receives of an object, the closer the object is to the viewer o Convergence the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object Monocular cues o Interposition object in front blocks o Relative size if objects same size, the one that casts a smaller retinal image is farther away o Relative height objects higher in the field of vision are farther away o Relative motion as we move, stable objects move with us o Linear perspective parallel lines converge with distance o Light and shadow nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes, light comes from above Gustation Taste vs. flavor Taste five basic tastes Flavor combination of retronasal olfaction and taste (and really feel, look, sound, cognition, and emotion contribute too) 5 Basic Tastes Salty Sweet Bitter 25 different bitter receptors, poison detectors, pregnant women are most sensitive to bitter Sour detects acids, at high concentrations acids cause tissue damage Umami loosely translates to earthy glutamate/protein detection Special case of fat like protein, fat molecules are to big to interact with taste receptors, but we still crave fat (receptors in stomach) Steps in taste sensation 1. Chewing breaks down food into smaller molecules that are dissolved in saliva 2. Papillae cover the tongue 3. Taste buds embedded in papillae 4. Each taste bud contains a number of taste receptor cells 5. Interaction between taste receptor and preferred molecule sends action potential along cranial nerve to the brain Taste structures Taste receptor cells lifespan of about 10 days What happens in the brain Orbitofrontal cortex integration area neurons respond to temperature, touch, smell and taste; where perception of flavor occurs Bimodal neurons The taste experience Genetic variation a lot of variation between and within species o Supertasters, medium tasters, nontasters o Health consequences