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Sensation and Perception, Week 4

by: Phoebe Notetaker

Sensation and Perception, Week 4 Psych 101

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Social Science > Psych 101 > Sensation and Perception Week 4
Phoebe Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover what sensation and perception is, and how it is involved in 2 senses: vision and taste
General Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, psych101, psyc101, into to world religions
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Sensation and Perception Sensation­ sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from  our environment Perception­ organization and interpretation of sensory information, enabling us to recognize  meaningful objects and events Vision ­Eye Components  Cornea­ Curved, transparent dome that bends incoming light  Pupil­ Opening in the center of the iris that lets in light  Iris­ Colored area containing muscles that control the pupil  Lens­ Transparent disk that focuses light rays for near or distant vision  Retina­ Innermost layer of the eye, where incoming light is converted into nerve impulses  Fovea/macula­ The part of the retina where light rays are most sharply focused  Blind spot­ Part of the visual field we can’t see because of an absence of rods and cones   Pigment epithelium­ Allows us to see in dim light ­Photoreceptors  Located in the retina Cones Rods  Color  No color  6 million per eye  120 million per eye  center  periphery  not sensitive to dim light  sensitive to dim light  sensitive to detail  not sensitive to detail ­Levels of processing 1. Rods and cones 2. Bipolar cells 3. Ganglion cells 4. Optic nerve 5. Thalamus 6. Visual cortex (occipital lobe) ­Color vision  Trichromatic vision­ 3 types of color receptors (cones) sensitive to separate colors; red,  blue, and green  Opponent­process theory­ opposing retinal processes (red­green, yellow­blue) enable  color vision; for example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red and  vice versa ­Perception  Can be influenced by  o Ambiguous stimuli o Context o Previous experience o Expectancies ­Form perception  Figure­ground­ the organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out  from their surroundings (ground)  Grouping­ the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups  Proximity­ nearby objects go together  Similarity­ similar objects go together  Continuity­ we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous  Connectedness­ when uniformed or linked we perceive items as a single unit  Closure­ we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object ­Depth perception  Binocular cues o Retinal disparity­ the greater the difference between the 2 images the retina  receives of an object, the closer the object is to the viewer o Convergence­ the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an  object  Monocular cues o Interposition­ object in front blocks o Relative size­ if objects same size, the one that casts a smaller retinal image is  farther away o Relative height­ objects higher in the field of vision are farther away o Relative motion­ as we move, stable objects move with us o Linear perspective­ parallel lines converge with distance o Light and shadow­ nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes, light comes from  above Gustation ­Taste vs. flavor  Taste­ five basic tastes  Flavor­ combination of retronasal olfaction and taste (and really feel, look, sound,  cognition, and emotion contribute too) ­5 Basic Tastes  Salty  Sweet  Bitter­ 25 different bitter receptors, poison detectors, pregnant women are most sensitive  to bitter  Sour­ detects acids, at high concentrations acids cause tissue damage  Umami­ loosely translates to earthy­ glutamate/protein detection  Special case of fat­ like protein, fat molecules are to big to interact with taste receptors,  but we still crave fat (receptors in stomach) ­Steps in taste sensation 1. Chewing breaks down food into smaller molecules that are dissolved in saliva 2. Papillae cover the tongue 3. Taste buds embedded in papillae 4. Each taste bud contains a number of taste receptor cells 5. Interaction between taste receptor and preferred molecule sends action potential along  cranial nerve to the brain ­Taste structures  Taste receptor cells­ lifespan of about 10 days ­What happens in the brain  Orbitofrontal cortex­ integration area­ neurons respond to temperature, touch, smell and  taste; where perception of flavor occurs  Bimodal neurons ­The taste experience  Genetic variation­ a lot of variation between and within species o Supertasters, medium tasters, nontasters o Health consequences


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