Chemistry 121 Week 3 Class Notes
Chemistry 121 Week 3 Class Notes CHEM121A
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM121A at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Berg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with definitions will be the last sections! (: The textbook and vocabulary notes are from the second half of chapter 2 Lecture Notes Henry Mosley made the periodic table by mass not number Now it is in order of atomic number o When it is lined up like this it shows a pattern of how the elements line up Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties There are 8 groups that have the main groups are labeled through 1A8A o There are 8 groups that are the transition metals that are labeled 1B8B Group names o Group IA(1): alkali metals +1 o Group IIA(2): alkaline earth metals +2 o Group VIA(16): chalcogens (“chalk formers”) o Group VIIA(17): halogens (“salt formers”) 1 o Group VIIIA(18): noble gases (or inert gases or rare gases) o Group IB(11): coinage metals Elements want to have the same number of electrons as the Nobel gases Covalent are between NONMETALS o Share electrons o Carbon is an example Ionic bond between generally formed between METALS and NONMETALS. Oxidation is the loss of electrons Reduction is the gain of electrons Top right of the periodic table has the greatest electronegativity Rules for oxidation o Oxidation number of elements (in their natural stable state) is always zero. o simple monoatomic ions have an oxidation number equal to its charge o Sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a formula must equal the charge on the formula. If no charge is shown, it is assumed to be zero. Naming compounds o Ionic compounds Binary ionic compounds with metals having only ONE common charge. When the metal component is fixed Page 1 of 5 Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) o The name of the cation is the same as the name of the metal. o The name of the anion takes the root of the nonmetal name and adds the suffix “ide”. o The subscripts in the formula give the combining ratio for the ions When the metal component is variable like Iron II or Iron III o Binary ionic compounds with metals, particularly transition metals, having more than one common charge. Ionic compounds in which one or both the ions are polyatomic. o The polyatomic ion stay together as a charged unit o when two or more of the same polyatomic ion are present in the formula, the ion appears in parentheses with the subscript written outside Families of oxyanions (oxoanines) o When the same element forms ONLY two oxyanions, the name of the one that contains more oxygen ends in ate; the name of the one with less oxygen ends in –ite Important element names to memorize when naming Element Formula Name Common Name from Latin Copper Cu + copper(I) cuprous 2+ Copper Cu copper(II) cupric Gold Au + gold(I) aurous Gold Au 3+ gold(III) auric 2+ Iron Fe3+ iron(II) ferrous Iron Fe iron(III) ferric Mercury Hg 22+ mercury(I) mercurous Mercury Hg 2+ mercury(II) mercuric 2+ Tin Sn tin(II) stannous Tin Sn4+ tin(IV) stannic Acid naming Hydrogen in the front The anion “ate” suffix becomes an “ic” syffix in the acid. The anion “ite” suffix becomes an “ous” suffix in the acid. Ends with acid o Covalent Compounds Page 2 of 5 Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) First word is the name of the first element with a Greek suffix of how many there are unless it is one Second word is the name of the second element with a Greek suffix of how many there are and ends in –ide Common compounds Element Common Name H 2 Water NH 3 Ammonia CH 4 Methane H2O 2 Hydrogen peroxide N H Hydrazine 2 4 PH 3 Phosphine Page 3 of5 Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Textbook Notes Note: These are notes from the second half of chapter 2 notes Ionic compounds tend to be neutral unless otherwise stated o The cation charge cancels the anion charge Organic compounds have hydrogen and carbon atoms Naming ionic compound o Cations formed from metal atoms have the same name as the metal If it has different possible charges, use roman numerals Cations formed from nonmetal atoms have names that end in –ium o The names of monatomic anion are formed by replacing the ending of the name of element with –ide Polyatomic anions containing oxygen have names ending in either –ate or –ite Naming acids o Acids containing anions whose names end in –ide are named by changing the –ide ending to –ic, adding the prefix hydro to this anion, and then following with acid o Acids containing anions whose names end in –ate or –ite are named by changing –ate to –ic and –ite to –ous and then adding the word acid Naming binary molecular compound o Name of the element further to the left in the periodic table is usually written first If both elements are in the same group then the one closer to the bottom goes first o Name of second element given –ide o Use Greek prefixes to show how many of each element there are Do not use mono if the first element only have one Things that only have hydrogen and carbon are named differently o The name ends in –ane and have a prefix Page 4 of 5 Introduction to Chemistry I-Week 3 Notes (September 12, 2016) Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical and have to do with the second half of chapter 2 Ionic Compound: a compound composed of cations and anions Chemical Nomenclature: the rules used for naming structures Oxyanion: a polyatomic anion that contains one or more oxygen atoms Hydrocarbon: compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen Alkanes: compounds o carbon and hydrogen containing only carboncarbon single bonds Alcohol: an organic compound obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group (OH) for a hydrogen on a hydrocarbon Isomers: compounds whose molecules have the same overall composition but different structures Page 5 of5
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