Freud Notes PHI 3453
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Parker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 3453 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Carol S Gould in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Philosophy of Psychiatry in Political Science, Philosophy, & Religion at Florida Atlantic University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Freud’sInsights Philosophy of Psychiatry Hysteria Three main theories of hysteria’s etiology o Anatomical theory: hysteria was caused by the uterus traveling within the body and interfering with other organs. o Physiological theory: “hysteria was a disease of drifting humors in a body conceived of as a container.” o Reflexive theory: Hysteria occurred when the uterus or ovaries were irritated, which passed on reflex pain to other parts of the body and caused hysterical symptoms. This transfer of pain was thought to be possible due to the extensive neurological connections from the uterus and the rest of a woman’s body. Hysteria was considered a “feminine corporeal disorder”. (Radden, 346) Freud worked to disprove these ideas of hysteria and believed that it was actually caused by trauma and/or a conflict between drives and desires, typically sexual in nature. The chart below demonstrates his theory about the structure of hysteria. Image from: http://www.3quarksdaily.com/3quarksdaily/2010/03/psychological-science- sigmund-freud-a-personal-and-scientific-coward-part-2.html 1 | P a g e Ribot’s Law The idea that recent memories are more likely to be forgotten before distant memories are affected This was defied by Anna O, who forgot her native German language but would be able to speak in another learned language The case with Anna O led Freud to form the idea of the unconscious as something that governs all human actions, whether we are aware of it or not Transcendental Argument Formed by German philosopher Immanuel Kant Form of argument that begins with the acknowledgement of a recognized experience, then states a specific reason for the experience and proceeds to prove it to be the truth. This as well as other transcendental strategies formed by Kant greatly impacted Freud’s methodology and research (see Radden, p. 343 “transcendental analytic and deduction”) The Oedipus complex Occurs in the phallic stage of development The child’s unconscious desire to have relations or be attracted to the parent of the opposite sex Freud’s Idea About God Defined religion as a type of collective neurosis that had an adaptive function for individual societies Neurosis: The first theory of instinct; the occurrence of psychosomatic symptoms (such as hysteria) due to the repression of memories or trauma Super-ego: Mostly unconscious; formed by society’s demands and expectations of normative behavior and abnormal/taboo behavior (the basis for morality) o Instills guilt in those who do not conform to social norms o Ego Ideal: the idealized version of the self in terms of societal norms Believed that God is a representation of society’s ideal father-figure and is the embodiment of our morality; a projection of our super-ego 2 | P a g e Unconscious Objections Image from: http://conductorscorner.com/!Extras/Entries/2011/1/30_WAGNER_AND_SCHOPENHAUER_files/shapei mage_7.png Many argued that Freud’s idea of the unconscious was incorrect due to that fact that it is unobservable Freud would respond by stating we use transcendental reasoning o [I personally struggled to understand Kant’s transcendental logic regarding the whole “Phenomenal” and “Noumenal” worlds, so I did some research. I’ll explain Kant’s logic as well as how Freud referred to it in order to respond to objections about his theory of the unconscious] Phenomena: things which exist in space & time; must obey the laws of nature; are subject to casualty Noumena: objects of thought that cannot appear in space & time; do not follow laws of nature; are not subject to casualty Kant took these terms and applied them to the characteristics of human beings, stating that we as living beings are affected by forces of the natural world, are subject to death, and other natural forces determine our actions/inactions (e.g. we get hungry if we go a certain amount of time without eating, we are affected by temperature changes, etc.). These are all phenomenal characteristics of human beings. Kant also stated that we have noumenal characteristics within the realm of reason (the intelligible world), which is beyond the realm of natural forces. Phenomenal is known by the senses, while nominal is known through thought, or things we believe but lack sense-evidence of. Kant argues 3 | P a g e that the world as experienced by us is the phenomenal world, while the world that constitutes reality, the presumed things themselves, is the noumenal world. So, Freud responds to objections that the unconscious cannot be experienced and therefore does not exist by stating that the unconscious is experienced in the noumenal world. o This website is very helpful in understanding this concept and can probably explain it way better than I can: http://http- server.carleton.ca/~abrook/KTFRDJAP.htm Freud’s Vienna vs Contemporary Society At the time of Freud’s research, Viennese society exercised discrimination against those of the Jewish faith; because Freud was Jewish, he was unable to get an institutional position, despite having graduated from medical school. o In contemporary society, employers cannot discriminate against employees/applicants due to their religion. Additionally, Judaism is now more common and accepted. Viennese society was also very sexist, believing that women were prone to bouts of hysteria caused by their uterus. Women were often not taken seriously and did not participate in scientific practices the way men were able to. o Knowledge of the human body, including female anatomy, has greatly increased and diagnoses such as hysteria caused by the uterus are no longer accepted. The traditional nuclear families were the norm in Freud’s society, which put him in an odd position as his mother was his father’s third wife, and he had two step brothers. o Currently, only around 25% of families in the United States represent the traditional nuclear family model. Some households consist of same-sex parents, single parents, mothers who provide the income, fathers who are the primary nurturing figure, or grandparents/aunts/uncles/etc. who act as parents and raise children. Transference & Counter-transference Transference: The unconscious transfer of positive or negative feelings for parents or significant others toward the therapist o Represents a critical juncture in the psychoanalytic relationship Counter-Transference: The unconscious transfer of positive or negative emotions towards a patient by a therapist. o Considered the biggest ethical violation that can be committed by a therapist 4 | P a g e o Psychoanalytic training teaches therapists how to manage countertransference so they do not influence the behavior of the patient. Repression Caused by anxiety when the ego detects danger (loss of love and support). The ego then works to defend the self through repression. Repression: The process of threatening thoughts being transferred from conscious awareness to the unconscious o While these thoughts are no longer part of one’s conscious awareness, they are still present o The analysis of dreams or free association allows an individual to become conscious of repressed thoughts Dreams: Work to preserve sleep through wish fulfillment o Latent Content: The repressed content of a dream which is transformed to allow the person to sleep. o Manifest Content: The by-product of the transformation, which is what the individual represents in expressing the dream. 5 | P a g e
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