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Remote Sensing Week 3

by: Ivana Szwejkowski

Remote Sensing Week 3 GEOG 2107

Ivana Szwejkowski
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

These notes cover how to infer and analyze the contents aerial data
Intro to Remote Sensing
Engstrom, R
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivana Szwejkowski on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 2107 at George Washington University taught by Engstrom, R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Remote Sensing in Geography at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Remote Sensing week 3 9/12 Spatial resolution = instantaneous point of view x height of image sensor  Temporal  Spectral  Radiometric Image Interpretation Interpreter Requirements  Vision (stereoscopic acuity, color vision)  Knowledge of application and environment  Pattern recognition skills  Intelligence and motivation Performance Tests  Standardized Tests for screening -Recognition of Basic patterns and shape -See in stereo -Normal color vision Interpretive Elements  Info contained in image data  Scale dependent and interrelated  Elements Elements of Interpretation- Tone/Color  Basic elements of interpretation  Amount of energy returned from object or location  Amount of energy returned depends on- reflectance of object, sensitivity of sensor  Black and White (Panchromatic), tone is greyness level ranging from black (high return) to white (low return)  Color imagery- differences in color are based on energy returned in specific wavelength bands -Three dimensional tone varying in -Intensity- brightness -Hue- dominant wavelength/color -Saturation-purity of color  Characteristic Placement and arrangement of repetitions in tone or color; subtle changes in tone in close proximity  Visual impressions of roughness or smoothness  Scale dependent Elements of Interpretation  Size of interpretation  Measured in two ways; Relative (compare two objects size) and Absolute ( known dimensions to scale)  Shape -Top-down view versus profile -Cultural Features-tend to have regular geometric -Natural features-  Patterns -Drainage Networks -Orchards -Housing Patterns -Road Networks  Shadow -can aid analysis -can hinder analysis  Height -absolute measurements versus oblique image data  Context -highest level of cognition, integrates all levels of interpretation -Site and Association 9/14 Image interpretation continued Interpretation process  Search procedure and interpretation keys  Image information  Location, date, sensor, spatial resolution  Collateral (ancillary) data  General to specific - Overall impression - Major geographic regions- natural vs. cultural - Approximate area of land cover/use - Grid system to describe location of features in image - Identify specific features - Examination of evidence within image to converge to interpretation Human vs. Automated Approaches  Humans generally utilize higher order elements of interpretation, e.g. context, shape, size, more successfully than computer- qualitative  Computers can quantify multiple levels of image tone more accurately than human- quantitative  Computers are less biased, but may be less accurate because of limited ability for higher order interpretation  Training and equipment  Hybrid approaches Electro-magnetic Radiation (EMR) -Link between surface and sensor Sun  Surface  Sensor Energy Flow: Radiation  Energy transferred between objects in the form of electromagnetic waves/ particles (light)  Can occur in a vacuum  Two Models- Wave & Particle Wave Theory  Explains EMR transfer as a wave  Waves travel through space at the speed of light 3 x 10^8 ms/2 Wave Properties- Amplitude  Height of the wave crest above the undisturbed position Wave Properties- Wavelength - Lambda - Distance between successive crests or troughs - Micrometers - EMR Spectrum ( Gamma, X-Ray, UV, Visible, Reflected IR, Thermal IR, Microwave, Radio Wave Properties- Frequency -Hertz -Number of wave forms passing through a given point per unit time - Cycles s/2 Wavelength & Frequency = speed of light 3X10^8 m/s C= wavelength X frequency Relationship; inversely related Quantum Theory - Wave theory doesn’t account for all properties of EMR - Interaction of EMR with matter (absorption, emission) - EMR is transferred as discrete particles (photons) Planck’s Law; energy of a photon Q=hv Q= energy of quantum in Joules h= Planck’s constant Js v= frequency of EMR wave in Hz Energy Levels All objects above -273 C emit electromagnetic energy Energy radiated is a function of temperature Stefan-Boltzmann (SB) Law- describes emitted radiation from a blackbody as a function of temperature Radiation (Wm^-2) =SB constant X Temperature (K) Energy Levels: total energy emitted is proportional to T^4 Wien’s Displacement Law - Used to identify frequency of maximum energy emission - Inversely related to temperature EMR: Interaction with the Atmosphere - Must pass through twice - Energy detected by sensor is a function of Surface properties and Atmospheric influences - Scattering - Absorption EMR Transmission -Energy propagated directly through the atmosphere -Low transmittance with clouds and greenhouse gasses


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