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09/12-09/14 Art History notes

by: Tara Gardner

09/12-09/14 Art History notes ART 2350

Marketplace > University of North Texas > Art History > ART 2350 > 09 12 09 14 Art History notes
Tara Gardner
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

covers Mesopotamia, ziggurats, the cyclades, steles, and egypt
Art History Survey I
Mickey Abel
Class Notes
Egypt, mesopotamia, Ziggurat, stele, cyclades
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tara Gardner on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 2350 at University of North Texas taught by Mickey Abel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey I in Art History at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Ziggurats  Power structures (height/staircases)  Ritualistic/spiritual Gudea  Perhaps a form of advertising/reinforcing beliefs o Cultural conventions- something recognized and understood by most people in the culture Brings up the idea of written literacy vs visual literacy  o The purpose of gudea was written down, but the message could be understood by those who couldn't read as well based on the costuming/pose/etc Holding the "cup of the gods"-symbolic of food, water, prosperity, etc.  o The gods are happy b/c the water from the cup is flowing  Droughts are considered the priest's fault o This statement can easily be turned its head: "it's the people's fault for not worshiping properly"  We know he's a priest b/c of the hat Clay model of boat  The importance of water-tigres and the euphrates frequently shifted course, making farming difficult  Boats important because they had the power--could charge tolls, could segregate people out, etc  Water itself has spiritual/mystical properties Bulls head lyre  Musical enhancement is often seen as a bridge to a spiritual plane o For these reason it is often used in ritual  Images on it portray a popular myth - hero journeys to the underworld, where the animals have taken on human-like characteristics. Most of the animals are ferocious, but at the end the hero emerges having made friends with them  Highlights the idea that going on a journey like this could help one find where the world Property markers  Sometimes the markers tell us a little about the property owner Cylinder seals  A cylinder with pictures etched into the sides  When rolled over wet clay, it produces and image  The particular image shown emphasizes prayer and ziggurats Stele of Hammurabi  Cuneiform writing-first written language o Assumed that writing/reading was limited to the upper class  Stele-generally made to be understood by the general public, like a billboard  The stele of hammurabi at least 6 feet tall  You can tell which one is Hammurabi because he is bigger, seated, and his headdress/clothing is reminiscent of a ziggurat  He is handing the priest a circle (symbol of heavenly power), and a staff (symbol of earthly power)  Under the picture everything is written out in cuneiform  The stele lays out the laws of the land o Most famous is "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" Stele of Naramsim  Ruler believed he had a foot in both words (heaven and earth)  2 stars on top of the mountains o Gods were often depicted as astrological bodies o Coveys the winning of the bottle of naramsim and marks his "ascension to god-dom" **Tests will probably ask: what's the context; what's the cultural convention; how do they fall into spiritual/environmental/governmental** cultural convention-something that is commonly understood across a culture CYCLADIC CULTURE 3800-3200 BCE  Cyclades-islands in the age an/ Mediterranean sea off the coast of Greece o Water is extremely important o rocky and super uninhabitable o need to be thinking about trade and where you can get other supplies (not isolated, but interacted with other cultures)  spiritual world in this culture seems different than in other cultures; very watery-type world  water patterns emphasized aver t over again o reminiscent of Celtic spiral FEMALE FIGURES  some very simplistic, missing heads o Symbolic of fertility  also more advanced versions o feet angled as if they are lying down o mostly found in graves/burial mounds  those figures that are actually doing activities seem to be all male in nature o indicative that men are the authority figures in the rituals EGYPTIAN CULTURE  communicating by boat with the rest of the Mediterranean  dry desert with one life source: the Nile o divided into upper and lower Egypt (with lower being the most northwards, as the river flows northward) o source of the mile is in mount Kilimanjaro  the Nile has a seasonal cycle. o it would flood every year-irrigating  you get one chance to farm every year Egyptian Mythology  Axis Mundi-mythological axis that the world rotates around o In Egypt, this axis is the Nile  astrological features represent the god o Ra (most important god/sun god) thought to circle the world in a boat o night, the boat is thought to travel under the Nile though the underworld Egyptian Mythology  Idea that in the underworld you need to take with you everything you need to live o Common people didn't have all that much with them o Pharaohs, on the other hand, had took a lot of stuff with them  All of the people, animals, etc they need would be killed and taken with them mass execution style  Some of the more benevolent pharaohs would create dioramas instead of actually killing everyone  This is all important because it means we have a lot of artifacts that show us how Egyptians lived  For this ritual, you need both a temple (east of the Nile) and a burial site (west of the Nile) o This is why all the pyramids and tombs are on the west bank of the Nile  If the husband dies, the wife is responsible for getting the mummified body from the east side to the west side of the Nile to be buried o Bark--shallow funeral boat that crosses the Nile  After crossing the Nile, the body is carried with much ritual to the burial site o Funeral processions had wailers, who always wore yellow and were always women and whose job was to express grief during the procession Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt  We can tell figure is a pharaoh because he's larger than everyone, distinctive headdresses and because of his stance o Pharaoh stance: legs profile, torso strait on, head profile again  Everyone else in the picture has tools, normal looking bodies, and are much smaller, and often their skin color is darker as they have been working in the sun Dynasties  The pharaoh was seen as the bringer of all that is good o An intermed o iary between the heavens and the earth  Egypt ruled by dynasty o Changes in dynasty often happens in times of famine o In years that are bad, they would literally just replace the pharaoh  The first thing a new pharaoh would build is his tomb, so he could start collecting stuff to put in it Lotus flowers  Grow along the banks of the Nile  Reddish white in color  Flower follows the suns and then "dies" at the end of the day o Becomes a symbol of the Egyptian's cosmological cycle  A popular decorative motif Egyptian makeup  Egyptian women wanted the fairest skin possible o In Egypt, there are not many pale people so they would paint themselves (makeup)  Unfortunately this paint was often made with lead o Symbol of status because women who were wealthy had a lot of servants and so therefore never had to go outside-- they stayed pale Narmer Palette  Thought to have been used for mixing makeup o Kohl (eye makeup) is thought to have been used as old-fashioned sun glasses, in order to attract the sun away from the eyes  Divided into registers o Each register tells a different story  Front side depicts the gods; a pharaoh smiting someone; and the underworld  Back side depicts the gods (again), pharaoh inspecting the dead after a battle  Used to apply makeup to the pharaoh in a ritualistic way, then placed on display to remind the pharaoh of his accomplishments/for propaganda purposes


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