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Week 4 Notes for ANEQ 346

by: Alia Coughlan

Week 4 Notes for ANEQ 346 ANEQ 346

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Equine Science > ANEQ 346 > Week 4 Notes for ANEQ 346
Alia Coughlan

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Week 4 Notes
Equine Disease
Dr Hess
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alia Coughlan on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ 346 at Colorado State University taught by Dr Hess in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Equine Disease in Equine Science at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Week 4 Notes for ANEQ 346 Equine Disease 9/12 Left Dorsal Displacement ­Entrapment into renosplenic space ­Signs: ­Mild to moderate pain ­Related to amount of tension on ligament ­Gastric refluxo; ­Treatment: ­Rolling ­Adrenalin ­Shrinks the spleen ­Surgery Right Dorsal Colitis ­Ulcerative Inflammation ­NSAID Intoxication ­Signs: ­Depression ­Anorexia ­Lethargy ­Diarrhea Volvulus of the Colon ­Gas in the colon ­Recent parturition *Volvulus = torsion around the base/itself Nonstrangulating Obstruction ­Only blockage of blood flow, not ingesta ­Small colon is hanging which makes it easier to obstruct ­Types of obstruction: ­Impaction ­Foreign Body ­Enteroliths ­Lipoma ­Volvulus Lecture 8 Colic *Colic = any condition that interferes with the aboral movement of ingesta through the GI tract may  cause bowel distension and severe pain of the acute abdomen Who is susceptible? ­Any horse ­Age, sex, breed may factor ­Type of colic relates to geographical differences Statistics ­4­10% of horse population ­70 % get spasmodic colic ­uncoordinated motion of smooth muscle ­If had previous episode, 3.6x more likely to get it again Risk Factors ­5­10 pounds of grain, 5x more likely to get colic ­Change in concentrate, 2.2­3.6x more likely ­Change in hay, 2x more likely Why Horses Get Colic ­Their anatomy: ­Small stomach ­Can’t vomit ­Small intestine has loose loops ­Huge large intestine ­Many flexures which reduce in size ­Designed for continuous food intake ­Causing factors: ­Concentrates ­Especially sweet feeds ­Sudden change in feed type or quality ­Poor food quality ­Moldy ­High soluble CHO feed ­Stabling ­Horse has no mobility  ­Limited food intake ­Stress ­Parasites ­Management ­Lack of routine ­ex: feeding at different times ­Poor dental care ­Medical history ­Anti­inflammatory or Antibiotics ­Limited access to water Why Colic is Painful ­Visceral Pain ­Intestinal spasm ­Mucosal (Internal layer) irritation ­Bowel wall distension ­Ischemia of intestinal wall *Ischemia = blockage of blood flow/oxygen Signs of Mild Colic ­Pawing ­Lying down & getting up ­Looking at abdomen ­Doesn’t eat or drink ­Possible increased heart rate Signs of Severe Colic ­Kicking at abdomen ­Increased HR and RR ­Altered mucous membrane and CRT ­Sweating ­Self­violence *Be aware of surroundings, horses can become dangerous Initial Assessment ­Pulse  ­Respiratory rate ­Temperature ­Color of mucous membranes ­CRT Information for the Vet ­Recent behavior ­Abnormal digestive sounds ­Bowel movements ­Color, frequency ­Changes in feeding/exercise ­Medical history ­Breeding history What Should You Do ­Keep horse calm and comfortable ­If horse is behaving violently, attempt to walk it ­DO NOT administer drugs without vet approval ­Follow vet’s advice exactly What Should Vet Do ­Obtain full medical history ­Physical exam ­Pass a stomach tube ­Also may: ­Rectal exam ­Abdomniocentesis ­Blood sample ­Suggest surgery ­Pain is unresponsive to treatment ­HR is above 60 BPM ­Gastric reflux is greater than 2 Liters ­Progressive reduction in gut motility ­Progressive abdominal distension Types of Treatments ­Drugs ­NSAIDS (Anti­inflammatory) ­Fecal softeners ­Sedation ­Fluids ­I.V. or Oral Preventative Measures ­Establish set routine ­Avoid feeding sugary concentrates ­Divide daily concentrate rations ­Regular parasite control program ­Fresh water at all times ­Reduce stress ­Maintain accurate records Some Non­Intestinal Causes of Pain with Signs of Colic ­Laminitis ­Kidney Stones ­Uterine Torsion ­Pneumonia ­Rabies 9/14 Lecture 9 Endotoxemia/Exotoxins and Peritonitis Endotoxemia ­Systemic disorder that originates from the host ­Response to gram­negative bacteria ­Produced inside gram­positive bacteria  *Lipopolissacaride = Important inflammatory stimulant and activates host inflammatory and    immunologic process ­example of an endotoxin Exotoxins ­Secreted from micro organisms ­Part of the outer portion of the cell wall of gram­negative bacteria ­Very specific activity ­Extremely toxic ­Found in a horse’s gut ­Thought to be from steptoccocus equis Absorption of Endo/Extotoxins ­Defense of mucosa st ­1  line epithelial cells ­2  line: phagocytic cells, lymphocytes, humoral factors ­Can lead to damage of the intestinal wall Causes of Toxemia ­Any disruption of the mucosa ­Too much grain ­Undigested soluble CHO in the hindgut ­Causes gram­positive bacteria to multiply ­Causes death of gram­negative bacteria so endotoxin in cell wall is released ­Parasites ­Obstructions ­Ulcers ­Local systemic infections with gram­negative/positive bacteria ­Pleuritis ­Pneumonia = lung ­Metritis = uterus ­Mastitis = mammary gland ­Perionitis * A retained placenta can also cause toxemia Facilitating Factors for Toxin Absorption ­Invasive enteric pathogens ­Direct mucosal lesion ­Black Walnut shavings ­Heavy metals ­NSAID ­Antimicrobial agents Clinical Signs of Toxemia ­Depression ­Perfusion deficit ­Toxic line/altered color of mucous membranes ­Colic ­Diarrhea *Toxins in Circulation = Overwhelming activation of the inflammatory response within the horse’s body ­Leads to: ­Inadequate tissue perfusion ­Multisystem organ failure End Stages of Toxemia ­Endotoxic Shock ­Multi­organ failure ­Renal failure ­Heart failure ­Death Therapy for Toxemia ­Fluids ­Glucose ­Antibiotics ­NSAIDS ­DMSO = Dimethyl Sulphoxide Foodborne Illness Timeline ­Exotoxins ­1 to 6 hours ­Bacteria ­12 to 72 hours ­Viruses ­1 to 3 days Peritonitis *Peritoneum = Single layer of mesothelial cells that lines the abdominal cavity and viscera *Peritoneal fluid = Has constant production and clearance *Peritonitis = Inflammation of the peritoneum ­Can be: ­Diffused or localized ­Acute or chronic ­Septic or sterile ­Primary or secondary ­Usually secondary, only primary if it’s a general infection ­Causes ­Latrogenic (ex: rectal tear) ­Septic (ex: abdominal abscess) ­Traumatic (ex: breeding injury) ­Parasitic ­Signs ­Depression ­Colic ­Pyrexia ­Congested mucous membranes ­Reduced gut sounds & fecal output ­Sweating ­Reluctance to move ­Pain during urination/defecation ­Diagnosed by: ­Rectal exam ­Abdominocentesis ­Bloodwork ­Treatment ­Fluid therapy ­Antibiotics ­Peritoneal lavage ­Heparin = reduces fibron locally ­Surgical exploration 9/16 Equine Disease Movie *Look through the handout giving to us in lab  


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