Week 4 Notes for ANEQ 346
Week 4 Notes for ANEQ 346 ANEQ 346
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alia Coughlan on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ 346 at Colorado State University taught by Dr Hess in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Equine Disease in Equine Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Week 4 Notes for ANEQ 346 Equine Disease 9/12 Left Dorsal Displacement Entrapment into renosplenic space Signs: Mild to moderate pain Related to amount of tension on ligament Gastric refluxo; Treatment: Rolling Adrenalin Shrinks the spleen Surgery Right Dorsal Colitis Ulcerative Inflammation NSAID Intoxication Signs: Depression Anorexia Lethargy Diarrhea Volvulus of the Colon Gas in the colon Recent parturition *Volvulus = torsion around the base/itself Nonstrangulating Obstruction Only blockage of blood flow, not ingesta Small colon is hanging which makes it easier to obstruct Types of obstruction: Impaction Foreign Body Enteroliths Lipoma Volvulus Lecture 8 Colic *Colic = any condition that interferes with the aboral movement of ingesta through the GI tract may cause bowel distension and severe pain of the acute abdomen Who is susceptible? Any horse Age, sex, breed may factor Type of colic relates to geographical differences Statistics 410% of horse population 70 % get spasmodic colic uncoordinated motion of smooth muscle If had previous episode, 3.6x more likely to get it again Risk Factors 510 pounds of grain, 5x more likely to get colic Change in concentrate, 2.23.6x more likely Change in hay, 2x more likely Why Horses Get Colic Their anatomy: Small stomach Can’t vomit Small intestine has loose loops Huge large intestine Many flexures which reduce in size Designed for continuous food intake Causing factors: Concentrates Especially sweet feeds Sudden change in feed type or quality Poor food quality Moldy High soluble CHO feed Stabling Horse has no mobility Limited food intake Stress Parasites Management Lack of routine ex: feeding at different times Poor dental care Medical history Antiinflammatory or Antibiotics Limited access to water Why Colic is Painful Visceral Pain Intestinal spasm Mucosal (Internal layer) irritation Bowel wall distension Ischemia of intestinal wall *Ischemia = blockage of blood flow/oxygen Signs of Mild Colic Pawing Lying down & getting up Looking at abdomen Doesn’t eat or drink Possible increased heart rate Signs of Severe Colic Kicking at abdomen Increased HR and RR Altered mucous membrane and CRT Sweating Selfviolence *Be aware of surroundings, horses can become dangerous Initial Assessment Pulse Respiratory rate Temperature Color of mucous membranes CRT Information for the Vet Recent behavior Abnormal digestive sounds Bowel movements Color, frequency Changes in feeding/exercise Medical history Breeding history What Should You Do Keep horse calm and comfortable If horse is behaving violently, attempt to walk it DO NOT administer drugs without vet approval Follow vet’s advice exactly What Should Vet Do Obtain full medical history Physical exam Pass a stomach tube Also may: Rectal exam Abdomniocentesis Blood sample Suggest surgery Pain is unresponsive to treatment HR is above 60 BPM Gastric reflux is greater than 2 Liters Progressive reduction in gut motility Progressive abdominal distension Types of Treatments Drugs NSAIDS (Antiinflammatory) Fecal softeners Sedation Fluids I.V. or Oral Preventative Measures Establish set routine Avoid feeding sugary concentrates Divide daily concentrate rations Regular parasite control program Fresh water at all times Reduce stress Maintain accurate records Some NonIntestinal Causes of Pain with Signs of Colic Laminitis Kidney Stones Uterine Torsion Pneumonia Rabies 9/14 Lecture 9 Endotoxemia/Exotoxins and Peritonitis Endotoxemia Systemic disorder that originates from the host Response to gramnegative bacteria Produced inside grampositive bacteria *Lipopolissacaride = Important inflammatory stimulant and activates host inflammatory and immunologic process example of an endotoxin Exotoxins Secreted from micro organisms Part of the outer portion of the cell wall of gramnegative bacteria Very specific activity Extremely toxic Found in a horse’s gut Thought to be from steptoccocus equis Absorption of Endo/Extotoxins Defense of mucosa st 1 line epithelial cells 2 line: phagocytic cells, lymphocytes, humoral factors Can lead to damage of the intestinal wall Causes of Toxemia Any disruption of the mucosa Too much grain Undigested soluble CHO in the hindgut Causes grampositive bacteria to multiply Causes death of gramnegative bacteria so endotoxin in cell wall is released Parasites Obstructions Ulcers Local systemic infections with gramnegative/positive bacteria Pleuritis Pneumonia = lung Metritis = uterus Mastitis = mammary gland Perionitis * A retained placenta can also cause toxemia Facilitating Factors for Toxin Absorption Invasive enteric pathogens Direct mucosal lesion Black Walnut shavings Heavy metals NSAID Antimicrobial agents Clinical Signs of Toxemia Depression Perfusion deficit Toxic line/altered color of mucous membranes Colic Diarrhea *Toxins in Circulation = Overwhelming activation of the inflammatory response within the horse’s body Leads to: Inadequate tissue perfusion Multisystem organ failure End Stages of Toxemia Endotoxic Shock Multiorgan failure Renal failure Heart failure Death Therapy for Toxemia Fluids Glucose Antibiotics NSAIDS DMSO = Dimethyl Sulphoxide Foodborne Illness Timeline Exotoxins 1 to 6 hours Bacteria 12 to 72 hours Viruses 1 to 3 days Peritonitis *Peritoneum = Single layer of mesothelial cells that lines the abdominal cavity and viscera *Peritoneal fluid = Has constant production and clearance *Peritonitis = Inflammation of the peritoneum Can be: Diffused or localized Acute or chronic Septic or sterile Primary or secondary Usually secondary, only primary if it’s a general infection Causes Latrogenic (ex: rectal tear) Septic (ex: abdominal abscess) Traumatic (ex: breeding injury) Parasitic Signs Depression Colic Pyrexia Congested mucous membranes Reduced gut sounds & fecal output Sweating Reluctance to move Pain during urination/defecation Diagnosed by: Rectal exam Abdominocentesis Bloodwork Treatment Fluid therapy Antibiotics Peritoneal lavage Heparin = reduces fibron locally Surgical exploration 9/16 Equine Disease Movie *Look through the handout giving to us in lab
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