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BIO 104 Chapter 1 Notes

by: Nat Rantala

BIO 104 Chapter 1 Notes Bio 104

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > Biology > Bio 104 > BIO 104 Chapter 1 Notes
Nat Rantala
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Biology for the 21st Century
Biology for the 21st Century
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nat Rantala on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 104 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dobson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
BIO 104­30 Textbook: Biology for a Changing World with Physiology Professor Christopher Dobson  Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Notes  Driving Questions 1. How is the scientific method used to test hypotheses?  2. What factors influence the strength of scientific studies and whether the results of  any given study are applicable to a particular population? 3. How can you evaluate the evidence in media reports of scientific studies?  4. How does the scientific method apply in clinical trials designed to investigate  important issues in human health?  Vocabulary  I. Science: The process of using observations and experiments to draw conclusions based  on evidence. II. Anecdotal Evidence: An informal observation that has been systematically tested.  III. Peer Review: A process in which independent scientific experts read scientific studies  before they are published to ensure that the authors have appropriately designed and  interpreted the study.  IV. Hypothesis: A tentative explanation for a scientific observation or question V. Testable: A hypothesis is testable if it can be supported or rejected by carefully designed  experiments or observational studies.  VI. Falsifiable: Describes a hypothesis that can be ruled out by data that show that the  hypothesis does not explain the observation. VII. Experiment: A carefully designed test, the results of which will either support or rule out  a hypothesis.  VIII. Experimental Group: The group in an experiment that experiences the experimental  intervention or manipulation.  IX. Control Group: The group in an experiment that experiences no experimental  intervention or manipulation. X. Placebo: a fake treatment given to control groups to mimic the experience of the  experimental groups.  XI. Independent Variable: The variable or factor being deliberately changed in the  experimental group.  XII. Dependent Variable: The measured result of an experiment analyzed in both the  experimental and control groups.  XIII. Sample Size: The number of experimental subjects or the number of times an experiment  is repeated. In human studies, sample size is the number of participants XIV. Statistical Significance: A measure of confidence that the results obtained are “real” and  not due to chance.  XV. Scientific Theory: An explanation of the natural world that is supported by a large body  of evidence and has never been disproved.  XVI. Epidemiology: The study of patterns of disease in populations, including risk factors.  XVII. Correlation: A consistent relationship between two variables XVIII. Randomized Clinical Trial: A controlled medical experiment in which subjects are  randomly chosen to receive either an experimental treatment or a standard treatment or  placebo.  Summary   Science is an ongoing process in which scientists conduct carefully designed studies to  answer questions or test hypotheses.   Scientific hypotheses are tested in controlled experiments or in observational studies, the  results of which can support or rule out a hypothesis.   Scientific hypotheses can be supported by data but cannot be proved absolutely, as future  studies may provide new findings.   The strength of the conclusions of a scientific study depends on, among other factors, the  type of study is carried out and the sample size.   Every experiment should have a control­ a group that is identical in every way to the  experimental group except for one factor: Independent variable.   The independent variable in an experiment is the one being deliberately changed in the  experimental group. The dependent variable is the measured result of the experiment.   Often a control group takes a placebo, a fake treatment that mimics the experience of the  experimental group.   In epidemiological studies, a relationship between an independent variable and a  dependent variable does not necessarily mean one caused the other; in other words,  correlation does not equal causation.   A randomized clinical trial is one in which test participants are randomly chosen to  receive an either standard treatment or an experimental treatment.   Scientists rely on peer­reviewed scientific reports to learn about new advances in the  field. Peer review helps to ensure that the scientific results are valid as well as accurately  and fairly presented.   Most of the general public relies on media reports for scientific information. Media  reports are not always completely accurate in how they portray the conclusions of  scientific studies.   To understand a study properly, it is often necessary to look at how the study was  designed and to analyze the date oneself.   Scientific theories are different from everyday theories. A scientific theory has withstood  the test of time and extensive testing and is supported by a significant body of evidence.  Test Your Knowledge 1. When scientists carry out an experiment, they are testing a _______?  a. Theory b. Question c. Hypothesis d. Control  e. Variable 2. Of the following, which is the earliest step in the scientific process?  a. Generating hypothesis b. Analyzing data c. Conducting an experiment d. Drawing a conclusion e. Asking a question about an observation 3. In a controlled experiment, which group receives the placebo?  a. The experimental group b. The control group c. The scientist group d. The independent group e. All groups 4. In the studies of coffee and memory discussed, the independent variable is ______ and  the dependent variable is ________.  a. Caffeinated coffee: decaffeinated coffee.  b. Memory; caffeinated coffee c. Caffeine; memory d. Memory; caffeine e. Decaffeinated coffee; caffeinated coffee 5. Can an epidemiologist who finds a correlation between the use of tanning beds and  melanoma (an aggressive form of skin cancer) in college­age women conclude that  tanning beds cause skin cancer?  a. Yes, as long as the correlation was statistically significant b. Yes, but only for college­age women c. Yes, but only melanoma skin cancer, not other forms of skin cancer  d. No; the study would have to be done with a wider range of participants (males  and females of different ages) before it can be concluded that tanning beds cause  melanoma e. No; correlation is not proof of causation.  6. You carry out a clinical trial to test whether a new drug relieves the symptoms of arthritis better than a placebo. You have four groups of participants, all of whom have mildly  painful arthritis (rated 7 on a scale of 1 to 10). Each group receives a daily pill as follows: control (group 1) – placebo; group 2­ 15 mg; group 3­ 25mg; group 4­50mg. At the end  of 2 weeks, participants in each group are asked to rate their pain on a scale of 1 to10.  What is the independent variable in this experiment?  a. The amount of pain experienced at the start of the experiment  b. The amount of pain experienced at the end of the experiment c. The degree to which pain symptoms changed between the start and the end of the  experiment d. The drug  e. The independent variable could be a, b, or c.  7. In which of the following would you have the most confidence?  a. A randomized clinical trial with 15,000 subjects. b. A randomized clinical trial with 5,000 subjects  c. An epidemiological study with 15,000 subjects d. An endorsement of a product by a movie star e. A report on a study presented by a news organization 8. What is the importance of statistical analyses?  a. They can reveal whether or not the data have been fabricated b. They can be used to support or reject the hypothesis c. They can be used to determine whether any observed differences between two  groups are real or a result of chance. d. All of the above e. B and C 9. You carry out a clinical trial to test whether a new drug relieves the symptoms of arthritis better than a placebo. You have four groups of participants, all of whom have mildly  painful arthritis (rated 7 on a scale of 1 to 10). Each group receives a daily pill as follows: control (group 1) – placebo; group 2­ 15 mg; group 3­ 25mg; group 4­50mg. At the end  of 2 weeks, participants in each group are asked to rate their pain on a scale of 1 to10.  The mean pain rating for the participants was 6.5 for the placebo, 6.0 for 15 mg of the  drug, 4.5 for 25 mg of the drug, and 4.5 for 50 mg of the drug. What is your next step? a. Invest in the drug company b. Conclude that the drug relieves arthritis pain c. Run a statistical analysis to determine if the differences are significant d. Conclude that the drug doesn’t work very well (even the placebo group went for  on the pain, and there was no difference in results between doses of 25 mg and 50  mg of the drug)  e. A and B  10. You hear a new report about a new asthma treatment. What would you want to know  before you asked your doctor if this treatment was right for you?  a. Was the dug tested in a randomized clinical trial? b. How many participants were in the trial? c. Was there a significant difference between the effect of the new drug and the  treatment used in the control group?  d. Did any of the researchers have financial ties to the manufacturer of the new  asthma drug?  e. All of the above 11. You are listening to a news report that claims a new study has found convincing evidence that a particular weight­loss product is much more effective than diet and exercise. What  can you infer about “convincing: evidence in this case?  a. That it agrees with the hypothesis b. That statistical tests showed significantly more weight lot in the participants who  used the weight­loss product than those who relied on diet and exercise.  c. That all the participants lost at least 10 pounds d. That only the participants who used the weight­loss product lost weight e. That the participant who used the weight­loss product lost an average of 3 pounds, while the participants that used diet and exercise lost an average 2 pounds.  12. How can two different studies investigating the same thing (e.g., the relationship, if any,  between caffeinated coffee and memory) come to different conclusions?  a. They may have had different sample sizes b. They may have used different types of participants (e.g., participants of different  ages or professions.)  c. They may have used different amounts of caffeine d. They may have evaluated memory differently (e.g., long term vs. short term  memory).  e. All of the above


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