New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 2001, Unit 4, Chapter 7

by: Kylie Flowers

PSYC 2001, Unit 4, Chapter 7 Psyc 2001

Kylie Flowers

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class notes for Unit 4, Chapter 7. Mrs. Bridges PSYC2001
Introduction to Psychology
Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Bridges
Class Notes
psyc2001, PSYC, Psychology, introtopsychology
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Flowers on Friday September 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2001 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Bridges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Louisiana at Monroe.


Reviews for PSYC 2001, Unit 4, Chapter 7


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/16/16
Chapter 7: Memory • Encoding – process of recording info in a form usable to memory ~ Material in memory storage has to be located and brought into awareness to be useful • Memory – process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information • Stages of remembering ~ encoding ~ storing ~ retrieving Memory Stores • Sensory Memory – momentary storage, lasts only an instant; holds info for only an instant ~ Iconic Memory – reflects info from the visual system ~ Echoic Memory – stores auditory info from the ears • Short-term Memory – holds info for approximately 15-25 seconds ~ Chunk – grouping info that can be stored in short-term ~ Rehearsal – repetition of info in short-term • Elaborative Rehearsal – info considered and organized ~ Mnemonics – organizing info to make it easily memorable • Long-term Memory – stores info relatively permanently, may be hard to retrieve Working Memory - memory system that holds info temporarily while manipulating and rehearsing it • Central Executive Processor – reasoning and decision making ~ Visual Store – visual and spatial info ~ Verbal Store – holds and manipulates speech, words, and numbers • Serial Position Effect – ability to recall info in a list depending on where in the list the item is • Primacy Effect – items presented early are remembered better • Recency Effect - items presented late are remembered better • Major Distinctions for Long-term Memory ~ Declarative Memory – factual info (names, faces, dates) • Semantic Memory – general knowledge and facts about the world, rules of logic • Episodic Memory – events that occur at a particular time, place or context; remembering when and how ~ Procedural Memory – skills and habits (riding a bicycle, how to hit a baseball) ~ “things” are stored in declarative memory ~“how to do things” is stored in procedural memory • Semantic Networks – mental representations of clusters of interconnected info • Spreading Activation – when one memory triggers other memories Neuroscience of Memory • Engram – the physical memory trace in the brain that corresponds to memory • Hippocampus – responsible for consolidation of memories; aids in encoding info ~ located in the medial temporal lobes behind the eyes ~ info later stored in the cerebral cortex • Amygdala – memories involving emotion • Long-term Potentiation – shows that certain neural pathways become easily excited while learning new responses • Consolidation – memories become fixed and stable in long-term Retrieval Cues - a stimulus that allows us to more easily recall info in long-term memory • Recall – info must be retrieved Recognition – when someone is exposed to a stimulus and asked if they’ve been exposed to it before or asked to identify it from alternatives • Levels of Processing Theory – emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed ~ Shallow Levels – info is processed in terms of physical and sensory aspects ~ Deepest Levels – info is analyzed by meaning Explicit and Implicit Memory • Explicit Memory – intentional recollection of info • Implicit Memory – memories someone is not aware of but can affect performance and behavior • Priming – when exposure to a word or concept makes it easier to recall info • Flashbulb Memories – related to a specific, important, or surprising even and easily recalled with vivid imagery ~ details recalled are often inaccurate, particularly when involving emotions • Source Amnesia – when someone has a memory but can’t recall where it was encountered Constructive Processes - when memories are influenced by meaning we give events • Frederic Bartlett ~ Schemas – organized bodies of info stored in memory that bias how new info is interpreted, stored, and recalled • Repressed Memories – recollection of events that are initially so shocking that the mind responds by pushing it into the unconscious • False Memory – developed when people are unable to recall the source of a memory that they have vague recollections of • Autobiographical Memory – recollections of our own life experiences Why do we forget? • one reason is failure of encoding • Decay – loss of memory through nonuse • Interference – info stored in memory disrupts the recall of other info ~ Proactive Interference – info learned earlier disrupts recall of new material ~ Retroactive Interference – when material that was learned later disrupts retrieval of info learned earlier • Cue-Dependent Forgetting – occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues for info in memory • Alzheimer’s – a progressive brain disorder that leads to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities • Amnesia – memory loss that occurs without any other mental difficulties ~ Retrograde Amnesia – memory lost for occurrences prior to a certain event ~ Anterograde Amnesia – loss of memory for events that follow an injury • Krokoff’s Syndrome – afflicts long-term alcoholics; causes hallucinations and repetitiveness Improve Your Memory ~ Use the keyword technique ~ Rely on organization cues ~ Take effective notes ~ Practice and rehearse ~ Talk to yourself ~ Don’t believe drugs improve memory


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.