History and Chicago Area Project
History and Chicago Area Project CRMJ 303
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luppino70 on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRMJ 303 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Jason Spraitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Crime Prevention in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Ch. 2 Early & Modern Crime Prevention Friday, September 9, 2016 3:05 PM The Code of Hammurabi was retribution by the victim as the accepted response. Acceptable revenge. (1750 B.C.) Lex Talionis: "Eye for an eye" and was the driving principle of the Code of Hammurabi Policing was done in cities and not for every citizen and for the nobles and statesmen. Think of 1000 in England, Parochial Police were hired men to protect the wealthy homes and businesses. Obligatory Policing: citizens (men) policing each other and holding each other accountable and punish criminals and not doing so was a crime as well. The Frank pledge system of groups of ten families to make sure people are behaving. Watch and Ward is rotating responsibility of keeping watch over the town or area Hue and Cry is raising the alarm and crying for help Statute of Winchester (1285) made this was legal code. Assize of Arms is the ability to have weapons when called. Constable was the one responsible for overseeing all of the watches and arms. In the late 19th and early 20th century there was a movement to academia to look at why people engage in crime. The research looked when and where crime occurred and who was involved. This started a move away from vengeance and more toward a formal response. Child Savers Movement was from about 1850 to 1890 to help kids. Children's Aid Society thought the poor should be with farm families to provide comfort and morality and learn some trade skills. Many of the kids just became farm laborers and not a part of the family The Refuge movement was before the child savers and they are known for the NHY House of Refuge opening in 1825 and became the first juvenile detention center. This was similar to the first prisons and had kids make things to try to rehabilitate them. Juvenile Court came in 1899 in Cook County in Chicago to deal with neglected and delinquent kids and act as parents in their place. Judges tried to discharge some formal rules for adults and aim towards therapeutic help and included status offenses. In 1974 there was the analysis of rehabilitation by Robert Martinson looking at decades of rehabilitation, he found that Nothing Works. Now there is a move on looking at Risk Assessment tools and are only important if they are validated to know what to measure and what needs to be addressed. RNR Model Risks: Accurately assess the risk at Low, Medium, or High. More resources need to go to the Medium and High Risk offenders cause putting low risk in with the higher risks can actually increase recidivism du to being around negative influences. Needs: Focus of the intervention. Target the offender and not the offense. Criminogenic needs; Pro-criminal attitude, Anti-Social Personality/history, Pro- criminal associates, substance abuse, family/marital history, school/work situation, leisure activities. Responsivity: Match Correct Programs to the needs. Program Fidelity is the practice of once the program is selected to the offender and is carried out is must be the same way for everyone who receives the treatment so we know what the offender is responding to and what they are not responding to. This is done for evaluation to see what works and what does not work. Also to be sure the staff carrying out the program as it should be run. Lipsy in 2009 evaluated to see what programs are the best and which do not work with juveniles. More crime control oriented programs dealing with Discipline and Deterrence were having increased recidivism. Surveillance programs had some reduced recidivism. Therapeutic programs like counseling and skill building were the best at reducing recidivism, this also has the effect of ultimately being cost effective in spending money now to avoid it later on in courts and detention of kids. Informal Social Control is the neighborhood policing itself with well-connected neighbors Situational Crime Prevention was made in 1983 by the British Home Office on targeting a specific time and place to remove the opportunities of crime. Crime prevention is stopping it from occurring and crime control is keeping the crime from climbing. Primary Prevention: looking at physical and social conditions that create opportunities to create criminal acts Developmental Crime Prevention: looking at risk factors that lead to deviant behavior Chicago Project Thursday, September 15, 2016 11:06 AM Leading to Hotspots of Crime Industrialization, urbanization, concentration of people in one area Chicago 1840: 4,000 residents 1910: 2.1 million residents Human Ecology and Social Process Park & Burgess at the University of Chicago looked at the growth of Chicago like animal ecology. Invasion, Dominance, and Succession. They made the model of Concentric Zones. Zone 1, Central Business District. Makin the area more into businesses Zone 2, Transition. Space invaded by other businesses and people, lowest levels of social control. Zone 3, Working Class. People who can live outside the city and know their neighbors Zone 4, Residential. Middle class people who can buy a house, little turnover here making for higher informal social control Zone 5, Commuter, upper class who could afford to be outside the city. Shaw and McKay put criminal activity into these concentric zones. Most crime was in zone 2 and that crime co-occurred with social problems, this was the problem more than the people themselves. High crime areas remained in the same spots regardless of the characteristics of the people living there. Normal people reacting normally to abnormal conditions. Social, cultural, and economic deprivation lead to crime. More-place base needed. Socially Organized Neighborhoods Solidarity Cohesion Integration Socially Disorganized Neighborhoods Low informal control Racial heterogeneity Residential Mobility In the early 30s the Chicago Area Project by Clifford Shaw was created The goal is to prevent and erase delinquency through self-help efforts in communities, empower residents, community wide accountability and give positive models for personal development Networks of 40-50 grassroots organizations known as affiliates, they commit to the CAP program model. Trying to prevent delinquency via community building. Residents encouraged to find their own solutions and not imposing outside policies.
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