PSYC 1101 Week 5 Notes
PSYC 1101 Week 5 Notes PSYC 1101
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Trina Cyterski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
PSYC1101 Week5- AllofChapter5:Learning **Note: Week 4 was Labor Day & Exam 1, notes from the Friday following the exam are included i his note set.** 09 September 2016 ● Chapter 5: Learning ○ Learning: Any relatively permanent change in Behavior brought about by experience or practice ■ when people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically change to record what they have learned ■ any kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning ○ Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist who discovered classical conditioning through his work on digestion in dogs ○ Classical Conditioning: learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex ○ Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response ○ Unconditioned response (UCR): an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus ○ Conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus ■ conditioned means learned ■ neutral stimulus (NS) can become conditioned stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus ○ Conditioned response (CR): learned reflexes font to a conditioned stimulus; sometimes referred to as a conditioned reflex 1 ○ Acquisition: repeated pairing of the NS and the UCS; the organism is in the process of acquiring learning ■ Although classical conditioning happens quite easily, there are few basic principles that researchers have discovered: ● CS must come before UCS ● CS and UCS must come very close together in time-- ideally only several seconds apart ● Neutral stimulus must be paired with the UCS several times, often many times, before conditioning can take place ○ CS is usually some stimulus that is distinctive or stand out from other competing stimuli ○ Stimulus Generalization: tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response ○ Stimulus discrimination: tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus ○ Extinction: disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (operant conditioning) 2 ○ Spontaneous recovery: reappearance of a learned response after Extinction has occurred; learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior ○ Higher order conditioning ■ strong conditioned stimulus that is paired with a neutral stimulus ■ neutral stimulus becomes a second conditioned stimulus ○ Conditioned emotional response (CER): emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli ■ Examples: fear of dogs, the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person, etc. ■ CERs may lead to phobias -- irrational fear responses ○ Little Albert The Little Albert Experiment demonstrated that classical conditioning—the association of a particular stimulus or behavior with an unrelated stimulus or behavior—works in human beings. In the experiment, psychologist John Watson was able to condition a previously unafraid baby to become afraid of a rat. Classical conditioning plays a central role in the development of fears and associations. Some phobias may be due at least in part to classical conditioning. (http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/psychpedia/little-albert-experiment) ○ Taste Aversion ■ Vicarious conditioning: classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person ■ Conditioned taste aversion: development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction (occurs after only one Association) ■ Biological preparedness: the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning ○ Why classical conditioning works ■ Stimulus substitution: original theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus 3 became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together ■ Cognitive perspective: modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus 12 September 2016 ● Chapter 5: Learning ○ Addiction ■ Cues associated with drug ingestion lead to cravings ■ Positive effects of drug condition used her to seek out drug ■ Tolerance ● Drug Overdoses ● Shepard Siegel study ○ body adjusts pre ingestion due to environmental factors in anticipation of the drug entering the system ○ novel scenarios don't allow the same bodily adjustments ○ same dosage then leads to overdose in an unfamiliar environment ○ Operant conditioning: action results in a positive or negative consequence ■ Thorndike's law of effect: responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated ■ Thorndike's puzzle box Incorporated learning by association 4 ■ BF Skinner: studied observable measurable Behavior; learning was dependent upon consequences ○ Shaping: guiding organism using similar behaviors until desired behavior is achieved (i.e. getting a pigeon to make a 360 degree turn) ○ Discriminative stimulus: any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement ○ Successive approximation: small steps one after another, that lead to a particular goal Behavior ○ Reinforcement: any consequence that makes a response more likely to happen again ( remember to distinguish between reinforcement and punishment) ■ Primary reinforcer: meets a biological need (hunger) ■ Secondary reinforcer: paired with a primary reinforcer (i.e. gold medalist; prize isn’t necessarily the medal but the prestige of winning) ■ Positive reinforcer: addition of pleasurable stimulus ■ Negative reinforcer: removal, escape, or avoidance of aversive stimulus (not punishment) ○ Negative reinforcement leads to an increase in aversive or avoidance of a behavior. Punishment leads to a decrease in the behavior overall ○ Schedules of reinforcement ■ fixed ratio: set number of responses required for reinforcement ■ variable ratio: number of responses varies between reinforcement ■ fixed interval: long pauses after reinforcement ■ variable reinforcement: variable amounts of time between reinforcement ○ Partial reinforcement effect: a response that is reinforced after some -- but not all -- correct responses tend to be resistant to Extinction ○ Continuous reinforcement: reinforcement of each and every correct response 5 14 September 2016 ● Chapter 5: Learning ○ Punishment: any consequence that makes a behavior less likely to happen again ○ Types of punishment ■ Application: addition of an unpleasant stimulus in response to unwanted behavior ■ Removal: removal of a pleasurable stimulus in response to unwanted behavior ○ In order for punishment to be effective it must be consistent ○ Stronger punishment often has an opposite from the desired effect and the unwanted behavior increases Negative Reinforcement Punishment by Removal Positive behavior followed by the removalNegative behavior followed by removal of of an unpleasant stimulus a pleasant stimulus ○ Punishment is never as effective as using a reinforcement technique ○ drawbacks of punishment ■ Fear and anxiety ■ Lying ■ Avoidance ■ Modeling of aggression 6 16 September 2016 ● Chapter 5: Learning ○ Behavior resistant to conditioning ■ instinctive drift: tendency for an animal's behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns ○ Each animal comes into the world (and the laboratory) with certain genetically determined instinctive patterns of behavior already in place ○ These instincts differ from species to species ○ there are some responses that simply cannot be trained into an animal regardless of level of conditioning ○ Behavior modification: use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in Behavior ○ Token economy: type of behavior modification and which desired behavior is rewarded with “tokens” ○ Time out: form of mild punishment by removal and what you're misbehaving animal, child, or adult is place in a special area away from the attention of others. Essentially the organism is being removed from any possibility of reinforcement in the form of attention. ○ Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA): modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired Behavior or response Biofeedback and neurofeedback ○ Biofeedback: Use of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses such as blood pressure and relaxation under voluntary control ○ Neurofeedback: form of biofeedback using devices (EEG, fMRI) to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior 7 Cognitive learning theory ○ In the early days of learning, researchers focus was on behavior ○ In the 1950s -- and more intensely in the 1960s -- many psychologists were becoming aware that cognition, the mental events that take place inside a person's mind while behaving, could no longer be ignored Latent learning ○ Edward Tolman: early cognitive scientist; best-known experiments and learning involved teaching three groups of rats the same maze, one at a time (Tolman & Honzik, 1930b) ○ Latent learning: learning that remains hidden until it's application becomes useful In their famous experiments Tolman and Honzik (1930) built a maze to investigate latent learning in rats. The study also shows that rats actively process information rather than operating on a stimulus response relationship. 8 Procedure In their study 3 groups of rats had to find their way around a complex maze. At the end of the maze there was a food box. Some groups of rats got to eat the food, some did not. Group 1: Rewarded Day 1 – 17: Every time they got to end, given food (i.e. reinforced). Group 2: Delayed Reward Day 1 - 10: Every time they got to end, taken out. Day 11 -17: Every time they got to end, given food (i.e. reinforced). Group 3: No reward Day 1 – 17: Every time they got to end, taken out. Results The delayed reward group learned the route on days 1 to 10 and formed a cognitive map of the maze. They took longer to reach the end of the maze because there was no motivation for them to perform. From day 11 onwards they had a motivation to perform (i.e. food) and reached the end before the reward group. This shows that between stimulus (the maze) and response (reaching the end of the maze) a mediational process was occurring the rats were actively processing information in their brains by mentally using their cognitive map. (http://www.simplypsychology.org/tolman.html) Insight - Kohler ○ Insight: the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution of the problem to come quickly; cannot be gained through trial-and-error learning alone; otherwise known as an “aha” moment 9 Learned helplessness: Seligman ○ Learned helplessness: tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past ○ Positive psychology: new way of looking at the entire concept of mental health in therapy that focuses on the Adaptive, creative, and psychologically more fulfilling aspects of Human Experience rather than on mental disorders Observational learning: Bandura ○ Observational learning: learning of behavior by watching a model perform that behavior ○ Learning/Performance distinction: learning can take place without actual performance of learned behavior ○ Bandura's Bobo doll Experiment ■ Children who observed the aggressive model made far more imitative aggressive responses than those who were in the non-aggressive or control groups. ■ There was more partial and non-imitative aggression among those children who has observed aggressive behavior, although the difference for non-imitative aggression was small. ■ The girls in the aggressive model condition also showed more physical aggressive responses if the model was male, but more verbal aggressive responses if the model was female. However, the exception to this general pattern was the observation of how often they punched Bobo, and in this case the effects of gender were reversed. ■ Boys were more likely to imitate same-sex models than girls. The evidence for girls imitating same-sex models is not strong. ■ Boys imitated more physically aggressive acts than girls. There was little difference in the verbal aggression between boys and girls. (http://www.simplypsychology.org/bobo-doll.html) 10 Four elements of observational learning ○ Attention ■ to learn anything through observation, the learner must first pay attention to the model ○ Memory ■ the learner must also be able to retain the memory of what was done, such as remembering the steps in preparing a dish that were first seen on a cooking show ○ Imitation ■ the winter must be capable of reproducing, or imitating, the actions of the model ○ Motivation ■ the letter must have the desire or incentive to perform the action 11
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