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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 32400 at Kent State University taught by Brooke Long in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Individual & Society in Sociology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
SOCIALIZATION ● The ways in which people learn and recreate skills, knowledge, values, motives, and roles appropriate to their position in a group or society ● Makes us both alike and unique ● Nature vs nurture ● Developmental theory = socialization is dependent on biologically determined maturation ○ Physical and neurological maturation Interpretive Perspective ● A child must learn the meanings common to the social group ● Cultural routines = recurrent and predictable activities ○ Get up, get dressed, brush your teeth, etc. ○ Requires communication The Impact of Social Structure ● Sociological = considers socialization as a product of group life ● Not a random process ● Sequencing of roles ○ Familial, education, work ○ Each age has expected roles attached ○ Desired outcomes at each point of socialization Components ● An agent = someone who serves as a source for what is being learned ● A learning process ● A target = a person who is being socialized ● An outcome = something that is being learned Family ● An ascribed social institution and socializing agent ● An emotionally responsive caregiver is essential ○ The type, quality, and amount of care determines the child’s outcome ● Mothers living in poverty = physical punishment ● Authoritative parenting = high levels of warmth combined with control Peers ● Developing of the child’s identity ● Interaction is voluntary Agents of Child Socialization ● Mass media ○ High levels of exposure ○ Shapes our perception of people and places Instrumental Conditioning ● A process through which a person learns what response to make in a situation in order to obtain a positive reinforcement or avoid a negative ● Shaping = learning in which an agent initially reinforces any behavior that remotely resembles the desired response ● Punishment = the presentation of a painful or discomforting stimulus that decreases the probability that a behavior will occur ○ Effective in some circumstances but not all ● Extrinsic motivation = dependent on someone else’s reward or punishment ● Intrinsic motivation = a personally rewarding internal state ● Self-reinforcement = as children are socialized, they learn performance standards ○ Use these standards to judge their own behaviors ● Observational learning ● Internalization = when external behavior becomes internal ○ Parent behavior guiding child behavior ○ When the person engages in it without considering rewards or punishments Outcomes of Socialization ● Gender role ○ Behavioral expectations associated with one’s gender ● Language ○ Prespeech ○ Word ○ First sentence ○ Grammaticization ● Knowledge of social rules ○ Norms ● Moral judgment and development Kohlberg’s Model of Moral Development ● Preconventional morality = moral judgment based on external consequences of acts ● Conventional morality = moral judgment based on social consequences of acts ● Postconventional morality = moral judgment based on universal moral and ethical principles ● Limitations ○ Puts determinants of moral judgment within the person ○ Does not apply to processes women use in moral reasoning ○ Shows little interest in the influence of social interaction ● Adult socialization = concerned with equipping the person to function effectively in adult roles ● Role acquisition = spouse, parent, work roles, grandparent and retiree ● Anticipatory socialization = a role they have not assumed ○ Eases role transition ○ Goal setting and planning ● Role discontinuity = when values and identities associated with a new role contradict those of earlier roles
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