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Central Americans: Intervention

by: Amy Turk

Central Americans: Intervention MCLS 20091

Marketplace > Kent State University > MCLS > MCLS 20091 > Central Americans Intervention
Amy Turk

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Book Notes for Class
Maria Zaldivar
Class Notes
Immigration, central, America, Mexico, us, economy, Reagan, Bush, Sandinista, Sandino, white, house, Congress, Contra, CIA, El, Salvador, Maximiliano, martinez, la, Matanza, Guatemala, War, UFCO, Arevalo, Arbenz, operation, Eisenhower, Osoria, Zacapa, Norte, Gutierrez
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MCLS 20091 at Kent State University taught by Maria Zaldivar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Semantics in MCLS at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
CENTRAL AMERICANS: INTERVENTION ● Civil wars and social chaos = caused the people to flee ● Military and economic intervention by the US gov’t ● Immigration and Naturalization Service = welcomed Nicaraguans but not Guatemalans and Salvadorans ○ Became part of the underground economy to service middle-class America ● The immigrants worked hard ○ Became the new Latino population in the US ● Central Americans were poor ○ Infant mortality rates high ● Economy was struggling, but immigrants kept coming ● Came from 3 war-torn countries ● Reagan and Bush administrations refused to assist the thousands streaming across the Mexican border to escape the terror ● Sandinista National Liberation Front = army ○ Sandino = martyred leader ○ Backed by White House and Congress ● Ronald Reagan authorized the CIA to train former Somoza soldiers into the Contra army ● A hit-and-run war of Sabotage and terror aimed at destabilizing the new gov’t ○ US wanted to isolate the Sandinista gov’t internationally ● # of Nicaraguans fleeing their country kept growing El Salvador ● Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez = slaughtered 30,000 Pipil Indians ○ Pipil rebelled against their landlords ● La Matanza = eliminated all traces of Indian cultures from El Salvador ● Hernandez banned all unions and ruled with an iron fist ○ Had US approval ● Coffee economy grew ○ # of landless peasants quadrupled ● 350,000 forced to migrate to Honduras ○ Honduras responded with mass deportations ● Soccer war ● Civil war ○ More than 8,000 trade union leaders murdered ○ The violence in El Salvador had spiraled out of control ● Biggest recipient of American military aid in Latin America Guatemala ● War ● UFCO = owned a million acres of banana fields ● President Ubico = stayed on good terms with the US ○ Financed the best highway system in Central America ● Population started a democracy movement ○ Forced Ubico to resign ● Voters choose Juan Jose Arevalo ○ Became a messianic figure ○ Spiritual socialism = a peaceful revolution ○ First social security and education programs ○ Offered gov’t loans to small farmers ● Arbenz = next president ○ Decree 900 = gave land to the poor ● Operation success = Eisenhower’s plan for the overthrow of Arbenz ● Carlos Arana Osorio = Butcher of Zacapa The Exodus To El Norte ● 500 people a month were being massacred = caused people to go to Mexico ● For 30 years, the US only gave aid to people escaping communism ● Refugee Act = helped anyone suffering from persecution ● Guatemalans were Indian Peasants ○ Settled outside major cities ○ Farm belts and small industrial farms ○ California ○ Florida ○ North Carolina ● Salvadorans were migrant workers ○ Quicker to adapt ○ Worked in hotels and restaurants ○ Washington ● Latino immigrants from previous years were learning English ● Newer immigrants were unskilled and desperate ● Sanctuary movement = a type of underground railroad in the Southwest ○ Led by American priests and ministers ● Threat of immediate deportation was removed ● Faced racism ● Ana Sol Gutierrez = was on a school board in Maryland ○ Changing emphasis on domestic issues ● Dedication to hard work


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