Week 4 SOC 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Schroeder on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Richard Fey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development in Social learning ● Sensory Motor Period (02) – reflex activity leading to understanding of intentional responses, object permanence. ○ Object permanence reason why playing peekaboo is so funny ● Preoperational Period (27) – verbalization representation moves from egoistic to social, language, symbols, imagination. ● Period of Concrete Operations (711) – evidence for organized, logical thought, understand time, space. ● Period of Formal Operations (11+) – concrete logical thought moves into the ability for abstract, formal logic (asif / ifthen) Socialization According to George Herbert Mead ● We engage in Role Taking ○ Because we have language and can think, we carry on silent conversations ■ We think something to ourselves and respond internally to it ● We talk to ourselves and answer ourselves ● “Role taking is a cognitive process that permits us to play out scenes in our minds and anticipate what others will say or do” (Shepard 2002:96). Mead’s Stages of Socialization ● Preplay Stage ○ Child learns to associate certain meanings to certain types of cries ○ At first egoistic and reflexive ○ Then begin to understand that we are social creatures through interaction ● Play Stage ○ Increase in mental capacity that facilities learning of language ○ Play one role at time, reflecting that role back on themselves ■ Cop OR robber, teacher OR student, mom OR dad ● Game Stage ○ Good mastery of language with increased thinking ability so multiple roles can be played simultaneously ■ Each role has multiple parts ● Dad is ‘Dad’ but is also a firefighter ● Generalized Other Stage ○ “an integrated conception of the norms, values, and beliefs of one’s community or society” (Shepard 2002:97). ■ understanding multiple roles in multiple structures of society and the world ■ We finally understand that other people have their views, social roles, we can see through “their eyes” What is the SELF? ● A developmental process occurring between the stimulus and response ● Interaction between two components—”I” and “me” ● The “I” and “Me” is similar to Freud’s ID, Ego & Superego ○ ID selfish, Ego and Superego keep ID in check The Process of Self ● “I” (viewer) ○ Unpredictable ○ Spontaneous ○ Selfcentered ○ Selfawareness ○ Responsive to the “Me” ○ “I” am the one doing the viewing of “me” as a social creature. ● “me” (object) ○ Socially derived representation of society ○ Predictability ○ Conformity ○ Past “I’s” ■ Moving beyond the selfcentered needs of “I” ○ “Me” is the social creature that “I” am viewing ● EXAMPLE ○ The ME knows the desired path is to go to college. Looks at the status that comes with being a graduate ○ The I is thinking about other options, is college the best decision for me? Is there better options? ● Language allows an internal conversation between the “I” and the “me” ○ This conversation produces the uniqueness of a person ○ The person is stimulated by interaction, then reflects upon what behavior to act out, then do so ○ Stimulus + Response = process of self 3 Primary Agents of Socialization ● People and groups who pass on culture through interacting within the context of social situations ○ Parents, Peers, School ○ Also: news, media, religion, work Elements of the Social Structure ● Status, role, group, institution ○ A recognized social position that an individual occupies ○ Status any position in a social structure that determines where a person fits in society and how he or she is expected to act and relate to others ○ Titles and placeholders in society ● STATUS SET ○ All the statuses held at one time ■ Dance partner ■ Boss ■ Friend ■ Harley club member ■ Sports participant ■ Businessman ● Types of Statuses ○ Ascribed status a social position assigned to a person at birth or at a later stage in life ■ Usually occupy since birth ■ Ex Gender, disability, nationality, an accident that happens to you through no effort of your own ○ Achieved status a social position that a person attains through personal effort ■ Something you have achieved or was through your own means ■ Ex parent, employee, student, citizen of a new country ● Master Status ○ The status that seems to define a person ○ Is usually assumed by others, BUT it is how you define yourself at a given time ○ Master status is your top priority in life and how you view yourself ○ Also, a person’s “MASTER STATUS” can either work in favor, or against a person ■ Ex persons who are intellectually challenged, biker persona vs. PhD teacher vs. father ● ROLES ○ Roles the behavioral expectations attached to statuses occupied by individuals in a given society ○ Everything typically thought of with the status ○ Expectations of how people are “supposed” to behave ■ Ex Status of student = roles are study, take exams, party, write papers, trash apartments ● Roles demand a person’s time and energy ○ ROLE CONFLICT ■ Involves TWO OR MORE STATUSES ● Ex Conflict between role expectations of a police officer who catches her son using drugs at home mother and police officer ● Ex A single mother trying to balance being an employee and a mother ○ ROLE STRAIN ■ Involves a SINGLE STATUS ● Ex Manager who tries to balance concern for workers with task requirements office manager ● Ex Being a single mom trying to balance 2 kids and getting to their different activities SOCIAL INTERACTION ● The process by which people act and react in relation to others ● Humans rely on Social Structure to make sense out of situations ○ Social structure takes into account elements of society and culture, including social institutions, formal organizations, and all types of groups in which are found ■ Relative stable patterns of social behavior ○ These patterns ■ Make the social world understandable ■ Help guide social behavior ■ Makes life appear as safe and predictable ■ Allows for social stability and order Unnoticed Patterns ● How do we make sense of countless familiar situations? ● ETHNOMETHODOLOGY ○ A process through which we “break the rules” in order to see how persons build their realities ○ Looking around to see where to line up in a new place ○ Harold Garfinkel ■ By observing reactions to situations in which people “Break with expected norms,” one can begin understanding the underlying assumptions and then how “reality is socially constructed” Dramaturgical Analysis ● Examining social interactions in terms of theatrical performances ● PRESENTATION OF SELF ○ Key is impression management or making oneself appear in the best light possible ● ROLE PERFORMANCE ○ State “Regions” ○ Use of props ○ Scripts ● EXAMPLE: ○ Going to the doctor and playing the sick role as expected Understanding Groups VIDEO ● Individuals are influenced depending on group ○ Group 2 or more individuals who interact, share goals and norms, and have a subjective awareness as a social unity ■ Dyad group of 2 ■ Triad group of 3 ■ Each are significantly different ● Triadic Separation ○ Georg Simmel looked at dyads and triads ■ Triadic separation 2 of the 3 people form a dyad and the 3rd person is isolated ● Often the isolated person will try to create a coalition with one of the members of the dyad ■ Conclusion triads are inherently unstable, dyads are stable ■ Future studies looked at group effect ● Primary Groups ○ Charles Horton Cooley introduced the concept of Primary Groups ■ Group that consists of intimate, facetoface interaction and long lasting relationships (family and childhood relationships) ■ Other ex: inmates, military soliders, street gangs ■ Expressive needs ● Intimacy with others ● Companionship ● Emotional support ● Secondary Group ○ Larger in membership ○ Less intimate ○ Less long lasting ○ Less significant in your emotional lives ■ School friends, company workers, people who live in your town ○ Provide instrumental needs (taskoriented) ■ Athletic team = fun and entertainment ■ Political groups = beliefs and how to influence country ■ Corporations = income and status ● Reference Groups ○ Primary and secondary groups require ‘membership,’ ○ Groups that you may/ not belong to but use standards for values, attitudes, behaviors ○ Essentially gorups that are role models ■ Sports stars, actors, singers ● In groups vs out groups ○ In group social group which a person psychologically identifies as a member ○ Out group social groups to which individual doesn’t identity ● Attribution Theory ○ How we make conclusion about others personalities ■ Person’s perceptions are distorted when based on whether that person is an in group member or outgroup member ■ We assess a person’s behavior, we have to determine if it is what we observe or what we perceive based on our own biases ○ Attitudes about behavior can be impacted by the in group and out group ■ Business setting: ● Men aggressive is good ● Women aggressive is frowned upon ○ Attribution errors ■ Errors made in attributing causes for people’s behaviors based on membership in a particular group ■ Tend to see people in our in group positively and people in our out group negatively ● Men saying all women are bad drivers ● Hispanic person assuming all white people are prejudiced ● Social Networks & Social Groups ○ Social network is a set of links btwn individuals, btwn groups, or btwn social units ■ Facebook, twitter ○ Social groups, especially primary groups, influence far more often than we realize ■ Ex Majority of people tend to share the same political beliefs and religious beliefs as their parents ● Asch Conformity Experiment ○ Solomon Asch ■ Students were told that they were participating in a ‘vision test.’ (1 subject and the rest were with the professor, subject didn’t know that) ○ Nearly 75% of participants conformed at least one time to the incorrect group answer (⅓) of the time overall changing answer ○ Conclusion, size matters! ■ When there was just 1 confederate, no impact ■ 2 confederates, tiny impact ■ 3+ confederates, more significant ○ Conformity = need to fit in AND other people are smarter or better informed ● Groupthink ○ Tendency for group members to reach a consensus opinion, even if that decision is stupid ○ I.L. Janis looked at gov policies and decisions ■ 2003 and Iraq ● Risky Shift ○ Tendency for groups to be more risky than individuals ○ Mechanism behind this conception deindividuation is the sense that one’s self has merged with a group ○ Blame is shared by group, not individual ○ Groups get bigger= risk taking increases ■ White supremacists ■ Bull run in Spain ● Organizations ○ A large secondary group, highly organized to accomplish a complex task or achieve goals efficiently ■ Corporations, the government ○ Organizational culture are the norms and values that shape the behavior of people in the organization ■ Dress code ■ Sandusky, football player raping children, “can’t talk about it at Penn State” ○ Types: ■ normative service, voluntary; people join these to pursue goals that they consider worthwhile ● No money, but feel personal satisfaction or status ● Achiever a certain purpose or meet a need ○ Ex Rotary club, NAACP ■ Coercive organizations are characterized by membership that is largely involuntary ● Prison, mental hospitals ● Erving Goffman = total institution ○ Individuals are cut off from rest of society ■ Utilitarian organizations companies ● Bureaucracy ○ As organizations grow, develop a bureaucracy (Max Webber) ■ Higher degree of division of labor and specialization ■ Hierarchy of authority ■ Rules and regulations ■ Impersonal relationships ■ Career ladders ■ Efficiency ○ Problems? ■ Ritualism rigid adherence to the rules, even if following the rules can cause danger to employees or others ■ Alienation when employees have little control over what they do or if they are treated like machines ● Employees are isolated from one another, eliminating any chance of developing group cohesion ● Relationship of Individual to the Organization ○ Functionalist; individuals are just machine parts, relevant to operation only ○ Conflict: individuals are subordinated to systems of power and experience stress and alienation as a result ○ Symbolic interaction interaction btwn superiors and subordinates forms the structure of the organization
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