Week 4 (September 11-16) - Race and Racism
Week 4 (September 11-16) - Race and Racism ANT3451
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3451 at University of Florida taught by Mary Elizabeth Ibarrola in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Race and Racism in Cultural Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Monday, September 12, 2016 Biological Basis of Human Difference – Genetic Variation Frank Boas Challenged taxonomic approach o How do we know? Inuit of Baffin Island (1883) American Museum of Natural History (1890) o Are racial markers static o He measured crania o No! Anthropology and Race 19 Century o Within other disciplines o Polygenism o Defense of slavery, Jim Crow, Indian removal, forced sterilization, restrictive immigration 20 Century o Professionalizes o Emphasizes human diversity o Human and civil rights Religious freedom Racial equality Understanding Biological Diversity Anthropological evidence o Architecture o Tools o Personal items o Remains Genetic evidence What we know: o African origins AMH emerged in Africa 200 kya AMH left Africa 60 kya o We aren’t that different 99.9% of genetic information is shared DNA (Deoxyribonucleic ACID) Molecule, 4 bases, in linear arrangement. o Thymine o Cytosine o Adenine o Guanine Double stranded Carries hereditary information (growth and development too) o Passed on by replication Variation in DNA 6 billion pairs on 46 DNA molecules 99.9% identical, 6 million points of difference o Variation within major groups predates the move out of Africa o Variation between major groups postdates the move out of Africa Highest diversity exists among those with recent Sub-Saharan ancestry Mitochondrial DNA Inherited from mother Only 16,569 base pairs Easy to track/sequence Doesn’t recombine Highest diversity in people with recent African ancestry Haplogroups Genetic population with common ancestor Assigned letters of the alphabet Adam and Eve Mitochondrial Eve o 200 kya Y chromosome Adam o 142 kya The bulk of human diversity comes from older widely distributed variants Ancestry and Blood Type Despite the persistence of racial categories, human diversity is incredibly varied Blood types o A&B diverged 20 mya o O arose in Africa before diaspora O most common worldwide, AB least common Genetic Variation 3 types of DNA variants o Ancient African variants present throughout the world o Ancient African variants that remained in Africa o More recent variants traceable to non-African regions Clinal pattern o While there may be epicenters of genetic mutations, they are not isolated Sources of Genetic Change Mutation o Heritable change in structure or amount of DNA Natural Selection o Favoring of traits that enhance survival and reproduction Genetic Drift o Genetic change due to chance Gene flow o Transfer of genes across population boundaries Sickle Cell Anemia Hemoglobin S – produces long slender blood cells which clog capillaries Simple base pair mutation (TA to AU) AA, AS, SS No cure Wednesday, September 14, 2016 Basic of Genetic Variation DNA o Carries hereditary information o Passed on by replication Mitochondrial DNA o Does not recombine o Easy to track Greatest genetic diversity exists in Africa Genetic change happens through o Mutation o Natural selection o Genetic drift Chance o Gene flow Migration Clinal variation o Geographic continuum o Sickle cell anemia and Skin pigmentation Geographic of Sickle Cell 20-30% of population in equatorial Africa in mid-20 century High heterozygous frequencies correlate with high malarial infections AS prevents lethal malaria Fitness trade-off Origins of Sickle Cell – A theory Bantu people may have brought from south Agriculture changed the forested environment Spread of malaria made sickle cell an adaptive advantage Not quite right Skin Pigmentation Natural selection Polygenic inheritance Melanin High pigmentation is the ancestral state Occurred after diaspora Variation in Skin Pigmentation Directional selection o Outside of Africa – reduction of pigmentation Dramatic change – “selective sweep” o Within Africa – purifying selection Resulted in low diversity Vitamin D Hypothesis Sun exposure and reproductive health o Folate o Vitamin D Health trade-off o Low folateHigh vitamin D (UV radiation) The Issue with Race Genetic variation is o Clinal (80% tied to geography) o Non-concordant o Widely distributed Cluster Race Race Genetic ancestry Genetic Determinism Genes, and environment, determine phenotype Although race is inadequate, we use it uncritically Emphasis on cluster over variation Pre-Darwinian roots Friday, September 16, 2016 Biological Basis of Human Difference – Part 3: Embodiment Genetic Determinism Genes AND environment determine phenotype Uncritical use of race Emphasis on cluster over variation Embodiment Dual status as biological and cultural beings How social influences impact the body Biology cannot be understood without society o Our social world influences our body Effects of Racism on the body Interpersonal racism has health effects Institutionalized racism has health effects o Constrains opportunities for success o Creates pathogenic social contexts Residential segregation Chicago study on hypertension 9/11 and Birth Weight Birth outcomes before and after 9/11 California 34% increase in likelihood of low birth weight among women with Arabic names 50% increase with stronger ethnic affiliationGiving the babies Arabic names Lingering effects of racism o Diabetes o Heart failure Sickle Cell Trait AA, SS, AS Heterozygous carriers have “Sickle cell trait” o 1 in 13 African Americans o 1 in 10,000 Caucasians Under stress can cause cell deformation Racism and Sickle Cell First identified in 1910 — Afro-Caribbean student in the U.S. Assumptions: o Only people of African descent had the disease o Higher prevalence among African-Americans than Africans Tool for anti-miscegenation laws, segregation (1950s) o Mixture of African Americans with Euro Americans was the problem Sickle Cell and the Civil Rights Movement Dr. Robert Scott (Howard) o Just as many cases of SCA, way less funding o 1972 — National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act o 1980s — rising awareness o 2003 — Sickle Cell Treatment Act o 2006 — sickle-cell testing becomes standard Sickle Cell Trait & Athletes Athletes families sued NCAA 2010 NCAA changes its requirements o Get tested, prove previous testing, or release liability Potential for racist practices Scientific community emphasized universal safety practices Recent Developments Stanford University study o 4800 active-duty soldiers o August 2016 o Increased risk of injury form overexertion but not death Susceptibility Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, many cancers o Not entirely genetic o Diet, physical activity, environmental factors Causation vs. Correlation o Example — Identity theft and Low altitude Alcoholism on Reservations Mixed research results o Variants protecting against dependence o Link between alcoholism and other dependencies Social conditions are more significant Race Worldview o Culturally structured, systematic way at looking at, perceiving and interpreting reality Does not dismiss biological diversity Does not dismiss cultural reality Starting point for study, not endpoint
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