Intro to the Horse: Week 3
Intro to the Horse: Week 3 ASCI097
Popular in Intro to the Horse
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Animal Science
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Malcomson on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASCI097 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Jennifer Wilkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to the Horse in Animal Science at University of Vermont.
Reviews for Intro to the Horse: Week 3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/17/16
ASCI097: Intro to the Horse Week 3 Notes Travel: th Horses= #1 form of travel until the 19 century o Steam engine- 1797 First railroads- 1830’s o Telegraph- 1830’s Transportation and communication Pony Express Persian Empire’s Royal Road o 500 BC o Mounted couriers delivered commands from capital (Persopolis) o 1700 mi road The road took 90 days to travel on foot 7 days on horseback o Herodotus “Nothing in the world travels faster than Persian couriers” Which inventions led to the decline of horses? 1830’s onward: Telegraphs Railroads Radio Telephones Television Internet Transport: Riding o Bareback- 3000 BC o Pads with girths 700 BC o Saddle 100 BC o Stirrups 100 AD o Notable riders: Cavalry Phillip of Macedon Alexander the Great Native Americans Sioux Comanche Wagon o Eastern Europe 3500 BC- Ceramic pot was discovered bearing images of horses pulling wagons 3150 BC- Ljubljana Marches Wheel was discovered, providing the first concrete evidence that wagons were being used 3000 BC- wagons in Mesopotamia 2500 BC- War Wagons o Chariots 2000 BC- 100 AD 2 spoked wheels floor with side and front guards 2 or more horses pulled each chariot 2 passengers- one to shoot, one to steer Uses Military transport/ archery platform Hunting Racing Travel Stagecoach o England mid- 1600’s o Covered wagons with 4 wheels o 2, 4, or 6 horses pulled each stagecoach o Transported goods and passengers o Spring suspension o Public conveyance Established route and schedule Fresh horses at every station Stations were referred to as ‘stages’- hence ‘stagecoach’ o Could go 5- 8 mph 60-70 miles a day Horse and Buggy th th o Late 18 20 century o Light, simple, 2 people could ride together, 1-2 horses o 2-4 wheels o Folding top o Uses Short distance transportation Less riding- smaller skill set o As a result of the popularity of this mode of transportation, cities began to establish, pave, and maintain roads Automobiles o 1910’s More cars than buggies o 1930’s Great Depression High gas prices People began to hitch horses to the front of cars that had no gas Horses in Work Agricultural work- starting around 3000 BC Ploughing Hauling Oxen and donkeys were originally used o Horses were smaller at the time, were more expensive to buy and maintain o People began to breed for increasing size, draft horses developed Draft Horses Docile temperament Very strong Patient Most common US breeds- o Belgium o Clydesdale o Percheron o Shire o Suffolk Decline of horses in Agriculture Tractors: o Traction engine (steam powered)- 1859 o Gasoline powered- 1892 o 1920’s Few large farms had tractors o 1930’s Great Depression Number of tractors decreased o 1940’s Tractor sales increased 10 million horses were sold o Return of work horses: 1970’s – today Horses are eco-friendly Use of horses and mules in agriculture has been increasing 400,000 North American farms use draft horses Horses in War “History was written on the back of a horse” Good qualities for battle: o Strength o Speed o Size o Willingness Eurasia 3000 BC o First use of horses I nwarfare Types of horses used: o Dependent on role Horses can carry 30% of their body weight Horses can pull up to 8 times of their body weight o Light- weight Horses (800-1000 lbs, 12-15 hands) Uses: Chariot, raiding, light cavalry Qualities: speed, agility, endurance Riders carried: Bows, spears, javelins, rifles o Medium- weight (1000-1200 lbs, 14.2-16 hands) Uses: pulling wagons and artillery, carrying heavily armored riders Qualities: agile, strong, large. Lacked speed and endurance Called destriers (knight’s armored horses) o Heavy-weight (1500-2000 lbs, 16.2 hands+) Uses: pull weapons and supply wagons Qualities: Good disposition, very strong, docile o Ponies 1813- British army used 400 ponies 1899- Lovat’s Scouts used Highland ponies 1935- British Army WWII- British Army o Donkeys Pack animals o Mules Pack animals Pulling carts/ wagons Riding Qualities: Better at strenuous tasks, less cooperative than horses under gunfire, were not generally used in battle Saddles and stirrups allowed riders to carry weapons and wear armor, as their balance was greatly improved Cavalry- Light Cavalry- Assyrians, Greeks, Phillip of Macedon, Japanese Samurai, Huns, Mongols o Light weapons, very fast Heavy Cavalry- Persians, Alexander the Great o Armored horses and riders Jousting- 11 Century o Training for battle, sport, entertainment Gunpowder 17 century o led to the fall of the Incan and Aztec empires Horses pulled cannons, armored knights no longer needed Instead of armored horses, infantry rode larger, heavier horses o Lancers rode light horses and were used for sudden assaults and flanking o Hussars rode light hoses for scouting, raiding, and sudden assaults Shrapnel and Automatic Weapons 19 century o Typical war horse was bought at 5 years old, used for 10-12 years Horses no longer as valuable in battle o Used for pulling artillery, troop movements (transport), and specialized cavalry American Revolution Infantry was very important, cavalry not used very much American Civil War Cavalry was modified to reflect Native American techniques o Horses used for pulling weapons, transport of troops, and on battlefield World War I Trench Warfare, Barbed Wire, machine guns, tanks made horses not as useful on the battlefield o Still used as pack animals Modern Uses Active military Law enforcement Sport Afganistan o Operation Enduring Freedom o First American troops to ride horses into battle since 1942 Types of riding Dressage o Traced to Xenophon, Greek cavalry officer Eventing o 3-phase competition Mounted shooting Tent pegging Creation of modern Breeds Bred for specific traits: Combo of the following o Maneuverability o Speed o Gentleness o Strength Over 300 breeds today
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'