Week 4 (September 11-16) - Sex Roles
Week 4 (September 11-16) - Sex Roles ANT3302
Popular in Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3302 at University of Florida taught by Amber Grafft-Weiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective in Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Monday, September 12, 2016 Recent thought: Evolution and the sexes Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence-Carl Sagan Man the Hunter Theory (1968) Washburn and Lannister o Bipedalism soured up man’s bigger hunting exploits o Lead to tool development and use o Language for coordination of hunting strategy o Led to food sharing between sexes; which led to male female pairing and family structure o Slocum refuted; she said it said that women were useless and couldn’t do anything, didn’t acknowledge women’s work o The foraging half also involved development of language to avoid certain plants o Assumes that men are ambitious and aggressive, women are passive o If true, why would women develop and evolve simultaneously? Woman the gatherer theory (1975) Slocum o Increased time for children with mother led to struggles obtaining food; nursing couldn’t be sole solution for subsistence o Noted that gathering of things that can’t fight back probably occurred first because safer o Mirror man the hunter theory o Says that the first tools were things like bathing sticks and carriages for children, or food storage materials o Issues: ignores hunting, should focus more on dealings of both activities; children can contribute earlier than she assumes; woman could also hunt; goes at underlying assumptions that men are aggressive and women are passive o Both try to address differences in a biological fashion o These theories are for early hominids Lovejoy’s Model of Human Evolution R selection (think rats) o Many offspring o Low investment o Most die before maturity o Short life o Superficial relationships o Low individuality o Commodities K Selection (humans) o Few offspring o High investment o Most mature o Long life o Rich relationships o High individuality o Brands Said that we needed an increased birth rate; we’re producing too slowly Women were less mobile because of childrearing so depended on men for food and resources Increased competition among males for women Estrous when animals are ready for fertilization; are in heat; ovulation Women lost this ability; could produce offspring year round which led to relationships Issues: page 116 Selfish Genes Dawkins o Males pass on genes by spreading seed to as many women as possible o Women can only have one partner at a time because of investment in offspring o This leads to differential behavior o Version of theory: sociobiology; because women only have one reproductive cell at a time and men have tons, they are going to only have one partner and men can have many Sociobiology E.O. Wilson o The systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior o Problems: genetic determinism no other influence on who I am; biology is our destiny; no flexibility or variation; by stating this, relies on assumptions of evolution and genetics that cannot be tested (example of extraordinary claim needs extraordinary evidence) o Looks like hard science; trying to incorporate hard science principles Evolutionary Psychology Theoretical approach to the study of mind and behavior that attempts to explain cognitive mechanisms as the functional products of natural selection Dangerous Directions: o Evolution explains rape A natural history of rape Thornhill and Palmer assert that the phenomenon of rape evolved due to the biological urge by human males to reproduce Thought that by understanding these foundations that could lead to less rape Wrong: men rape men which is not reproductive based; people passed reproductive age are victims; little kids can be raped; male scorpion fly uses clamp to reproduce with female Criticism: if it is evolution can we even fight it o Trait exists for a purpose Human Behavioral Ecology o Branch of evolutionary psychology o Attempts to explain behavioral diversity as a consequence of environmentally contingent responses made by individuals in attempts to survive and successfully reproduce o Disinterested in genetics roles play o Polygyny Threshold: idea that a culture’s system of mating and marriage is informed by the degree of resource control of each sex Problem is, it assumes greater degree of reproductive choice in a simplistic way o Explaining the unfamiliar Alternative configurations of biological sex and sexual orientation Homosexuality is a trait that is biological and cannot be oppressed Freud Bisexuality and sexual determinism Sexual orientation isn’t innate Everyone is bisexual in orientation and traits that we assign to either sex; everyone has a bit of both Explained that homosexuality results from a distressing experience with heterosexuality; once it is inverted then it cannot be reversed Recently studies have been done to look at brain and homosexuality o Hormones, twins o Some studies have found that men who are gay tend to have higher levels of testosterone and are actually more “masculine” compared to straight men The gendered brain Historically o Differences in brain size by race, sex, ethnicity Currently o Differences between left & right hemisphere o Differences in tissue connecting hemispheres o Using different paths through brain for a same function No scientific findings in these claims Wednesday, September 14, 2016 Outside the Binary: Sex & Gender on a Spectrum Non-binary biological sex Intersex (n): term used for various conditions in which a person is born with reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not fit the typical definitions of male or female Is not always have 2 sets of sexual organs but infertility or Sexual Orientation Terms Pansexual (adj): describes an individual who can experience sexual attraction, romantic love, or emotional attraction towards people of ant sex or gender identity Asexual (adj): describes an individual who lacks sexual attraction to anyone or has low or no interest in sexual activity Gender Identity Terms Gender identity: one’s innermost concept of self as male or female, or neither, or both. Transsexual: older term originating in the medical and psychological communities, and still preferred by some people who have permanently changed (or seek to permanently change) their bodies through medical interventions. Transgender: Term describing people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the one typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth Cisgender: term describing people whose gender identity and/or gender expression is consistent with that typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth Foundations of the Binary Gender binary: classification of sex and gender into two distinct opposite and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine Ancient Greece and Rome Sex and power in the ancient world (Western European edition) o Sexuality wasn’t that binary; their binary was based on a power balance adult males were focused on power o Defined by the male being the inserter, the receptor role could be played by woman or younger less powerful men o Had a feminizing effect in the receptor male, only costly to him not the penetrator o Woman engaging in similar sexual activity were a little invisible The Middle Ages Christianity imposes strict laws on same sex activity 1300: punishable by death Continues for the next 3 centuries Foundations of the binary: 16 THand 17 THCenturies Men, women and intersex were recognized Intersex could change their gender at will and take on the sexual partner that was appropriate The receptors are still feminized, penetrators survive in some parts Queen Christina of Swedengiven male education because wanted to remain celibate 19 Century developments And then there were two U.S. homosexuality is illegal o Through the adoption of anti-gay laws (state laws, still not federal) Sometimes the hermaphroditism was recognized Started to use biology to explain things Early to Mid-20 century Freud’s idea of “sexual inversion” takes hold Took hold even though homosexual individuals disputed it 1917 Immigration billNot allowed to enterHomosexuals because of mental defect 1990Homosexual term was retired from the “mental defect list”They are allowed to enter the country Mid to late-20 century Gays unwelcome in certain establishments 1969Stonewall riots: Police raided Stonewall Inn, and attacked visibly identifiable non-heterosexuals People and activists started to organize to ask for safe spaces for the LGBTQ community Where Are We Now? Gay men earn up to 32% less than their straight counterparts 5.9% of the population as a whole makes less than 10,000 a year. For LGBT people in particular, that rate is around 14% LGBT youth are more likely to become homeless. 20-40% of homeless teens identify as LGBT In 2014: o Hate-motivated violence against LGBTQ and HIV-affected communities dropped 32% compared with 2013 but o Hate-motivated violence specifically against transgender people rose 13% o 20 such incidents of homicide: 16 to 20 were people of color 11 of 20 were transgender women of color o 54% of victims of such hate crimes reported to police (up to 45%). Of those, 27% reported hostile treatment by police upon reporting o Only 6% of crimes classified as bias crimes by the national coalition of anti-violence programs were classified as such by police In 2015, at least 19 transgender people have been murdered in the U.S.
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