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Week 4 (September 11-16) - International Relations

by: Ricardo Rauseo

Week 4 (September 11-16) - International Relations INR2001

Marketplace > University of Florida > INR2001 > Week 4 September 11 16 International Relations
Ricardo Rauseo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what we saw on Week 4: World War I and World War II: Destruction of the existing order
Introduction to International Relations
Zachary Selden
Class Notes
International, relations
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INR2001 at University of Florida taught by Zachary Selden in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Monday, September 12, 2016 After Napoleon  Now what? Austria, Prussia, Russia and Britain did not have a lot of common interests  But they all wanted to prevent another huge war o France couldn’t be a problem anymore o Prevent conditions that led to the French Revolution and the rise of napoleon o They all wanted to create stability  Lead to a grand compromise: The Concert of Europe o They agreed they would meet o France has a seat, they wanted to bring a big power to the discussion Concert of Europe  Accordance or agreement  Pattern: Massive destructionManaging anarchy thoughtsInternational Institutions o Peace of WestphaliaConcert of EuropeLeague of NationsUN  Basic idea- create balance of power and avoid major war  Contain France and guarantee independence of small states  Agree to meet occasionally and review to ensure stability of the system- what is this a precursor of?  Also collective defense against resurgent France  Conservative in truest sense- wanted to conserve present order  Prussia, Russia, Austria and Britain all understood that France’s expansion came from its revolution  So important to contain and prevent revolutions  Gave themselves the right to intervene to prevent challenges to existing order o Les Mis  Was everyone happy with this arrangement? No, but best compromise to ensure stability  There were still conflicts, but not between major powers until 1850s  Revolutions of 1848 put Concert to the tests but it still endured to some extent Challenges to the Concert  New powers began to emerge- changed the balance of power in Europe  Germany and Italy both become nation-states in 1860s-1870s  Italy no longer a contested area between France, Austria and the Pope  Germany unifies through wars with neighboring states o For the first time in history o Not a peaceful process  Denmark, Austria, France  France has to pay indemnifications for damages done during war  Remember in WWI  Nationalism as an important underlying force o New concept growing in Europe German Unification  Bismarck mastermind of German unification  His diplomatic skill creates complex series of alliances that defines European system until WWI  Bismarck a Prussian- saw unification as a way to extend Prussian influence  Use of nationalism to unify Germany and extend power  Bismarck studied Clausewitz- Prussian military strategist  Saw war as the natural extension of politics and diplomacy  Prussia fights series of short wars that unify Germany and make is a major power  Bismarck identified with realpolitik- use any means necessary to achieve the national interest  By 1871 Germany the strongest power of continent  This changed balance of power and Bismarck understood potential danger  Creates web of alliances to prevent other states from seeing Germany as threat they had to attack  Basic idea- keep Germany, Russia and Austria on the same side and make sure France was relatively isolated.  Austria and Russia had issues with each other- both wanted same territory  Bismarck managed to play them both off each other and prevented them from allying with France  Big challenge was Balkan region. Still under Ottoman rule but that is weakening and nationalism Is a big factor there Nationalism  What do we mean by nationalism? o You can pull together people that share cultural identity and language th  Growing force in late 19 century  Both a uniting force and dividing force o Ottoman empiredividing o Italy and Germany unifying Big Social Changes  Changing economy- more urban population, spread of industrial revolution, development of concentrated working class  Huge technological change- pulls power away from traditional agricultural elite  But uneven process with varying effects across Europe o Unification of the working classIdeas that are surging  Industrial revolutionform of globalization o Ease on communication, trade and travel o Introduced new tensions too, for:  People working in factories  People who were running the industrial operations  Great Britain benefited from industrialization and weakened the elite classes  U.S. was nothing for Europe by then o But it is becoming a massive economic power and export Wednesday, September 14, 2016 Lead up to war  By 1910 the world is very different than the one during the Concert of Europe  Balance of power changed with new powers and declining old powers o The U.S. is starting to be someone in the international environment  New forces- nationalism and industrialization create new tensions o How people live and how people act is being influenced by industrialization  Comes together in bloodiest war in history WWI WWI  WWI set off by act of an anarchist- who were these people and what did they want?  Anarchist as a transitional terrorist movement- compare to today?  Systemic level factors o When there is instability, states have incentives to act  Balance of power o The alliance network of protection for small states started to pull up conflicts  Austria vs. Serbia Catalyst for war  Alliances o If Russia steps in to help Austria, someone has to step in to help Serbia  Security dilemma o Defensive movements from certain states were viewed as offensive  Domestic level factors  What is going on inside the countries that might lead to war?  Austria- problems with nationalism o Sometimes fighting a war is what brings a country together  Russia- revolution brewing o Russia was weak for all of what has happened to the entity o They had to give the people a common enemy  France- wants to get back at Germany for loss in 1871 Franco-Prussian war o The cult of the offensive o You have to attack now because it is now that you have the advantage of the surpriseWrong, but it was what people believed  Individual level factors  Why did people think it would be easy? o Quick and easy warDeceived  German high command thought they were losing ground but were in an objectively strong position o You are pushed to act because not acting is more dangerous o They had to hit France first and hard since Russia wasn’t that much of a threat  Perception of loss position means more risk-acceptant o We don’t challenge ideals  Instead of rapid victory, settles into horrific trench warfare on two fronts  US gets involved in 1917- tips the balance against Germany and its allies  Armistice declared November 11, 1918 how is that different from a surrender? o Germany does not surrenderThey didn’t give up o They actually agreed to stop fighting Friday, September 16, 2016  30 years’ War Peace of Westphalia o Sovereignty o This is our state we will decide which religion is practice here  French RevolutionNapoleon o Wake up call on how the people had the power to create instability in the monarchy that dominated in Europe o Dangers of nationalism and expansionism  Concert of Europe o Sometimes seen as a façade because the cooperation is only done between major states o Embracing the anarchic system  Unification of ItalyGermanyOtto von Bismarck o Gaining power for Germany o NationalismLed to World War I  British Empire, tradeIndustrialization o Uneven IndustrializationLeads states to rise up and challenge this system  World War I  Systemic  World War IDomestic o Russia wanted unity and modernizationThe war would beneficial o France had still some resentment because of the Franco-Prussian War o Cult of the offensive  World War IIndividual o Germany thought they were losing ground, back against the wall makes you think taking action is important


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