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Biology Chapter 3 Notes:Week 3

by: Adriana Proctor

Biology Chapter 3 Notes:Week 3 BIO-101-105

Marketplace > Chesapeake College > Science > BIO-101-105 > Biology Chapter 3 Notes Week 3
Adriana Proctor
Chesapeake College
GPA 4.0

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These notes go over various molecules in life as well as their structure and use with a few extra sets of information.
Fundamentals of Biology I
Doctor Hatkoff
Class Notes
Biology, life, Molecules, protein, Carbohydrates, structures, organic, Chemistry, reactions, atoms, diversity, isomers, Activites, practice
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adriana Proctor on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO-101-105 at Chesapeake College taught by Doctor Hatkoff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I in Science at Chesapeake College.

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Date Created: 09/17/16
Biology Lecture Notes  Chapter 3  Carbon:The Backbone of Life  Because of the actions of plants, carbon can enter the biosphere.  With the use of solar energy, plants  transform the atmospheric CO2 into molecules of life, where are thus eaten by plant­eating animals.  Out  of every element, carbon(C) can create large and complex molecules when they are bonded to other atoms  like   ● Hydrogen(H)  ● Oxygen(O)  ● Nitrogen(N)  ● Sulfur(S)  ● Although cells are between 75%­95% water, the rest consists of carbon­based compounds.  ● Carbon has the unparalleled ability to create large and diverse molecules.  ­Carbohydrates  ­Lipids  ­Nucleic Acids  ­Proteins  *Remember the elements of life: Carbon hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen; with more miniscule amounts of  sulfur and phosphorus.    Organic Chemistry is the study of Carbon Compounds  Compounds that contain carbon are claimed to be organic.  The branch that studies such a thing  specifically is organic chemistry. Carbon is versatile­it can be used to create an inexhaustible variety of  organic molecules.  Organic Molecules and the Origin of Life on Earth  At around 1953 Stanley Miller was able to stimulate early conditions on Earth in a lab.  He then showed  through an experiment how organic molecules could form.  Organic Molecules­​Molecules that contain carbon(with at least a hydrogen atom), or organic  compounds.  Living organisms are made of these.    Carbon atoms can form Diverse Molecules by Bonding to Four  other Atoms  ● An atoms electron configuration can determine the kinds and number of bonds that the atom will  form with other bonds.  ● This is the ​source of carbon’s versatility.  The Formation of Bonds with Carbon  Carbon as an element has four(4) valence electrons in its outer shell and can fill this outer valence by  sharing its four electrons, so that eight(8) of these electrons are present.  These shared electrons establish  a covalent bond.  CO2 has no hydrogen so we consider it to be inorganic.  This(CO2) is the source of  carbon for the living part of the world.  Carbon is able to bond to a variety of atoms such as:  ● Oxygen  ● Hydrogen  ● Nitrogen  Carbon atoms are also able to bond to other carbons, which forms the carbon skeleton of organic  compounds.  Valence­​The number of covalent bonds an atom can form.  It is equal to the number of electrons needed  to finish the atom in questions outermost(valence) electron shell.  Molecular Diversity Arising from Variation in Carbon Skeletons ● Organic carbon compounds can form chains, branches, or rings.  ● Some of these carbon skeletons have double bonds that vary in location as well as numbers.  ● Such variations in these carbon skeletons happen to be one important source of the molecular  complexity and diversity that characterize living matter.  ● The unique properties of an organic compound depend on two main conditions.  1)The size and shape of its carbon skeleton.  2) The groups of atoms that are attached to that skeleton.  ● Isomers­​Variations in the structure of the organic molecule.  Isomers also have the same number  of atoms but in the different arrangements, and thus different properties.  1. Structural Isomers­​These differ in their covalent arrangements of their atoms.  They both  contain the same molecular formula, but they are different in their covalent arrangements of their  carbon skeletons.  ​ 2. Cis­trans Isomers­​Carbons that have covalent bonds to the same atoms, but they are different in  their spatial arrangements due to their lack of flexibility of double bonds.  3. Enantiomers­​Isomers that are mirror images of each other yet are different in shape because of  the presence of asymmetric carbon, where one is attached to four different atoms or groups of  atoms.  Sometimes only one isomer is  biologically active due to the ability of that  forms bond being specific to molecules in  an organism.                                                    Hydrocarbons  Hydrocarbons­​Are organic molecules consisting of just carbon and hydrogen.  They are non­polar and  are, therefore, hydrophobic.  Hydrocarbons can undergo chemical reactions that can release a large  amount of energy.  An example  of hydrocarbons are fats and  petroleum(fossil fuels).    These compounds are  hydrophobic(they either repel or  fail to mix with water)because of  the great majority of their bonds  being nonpolar  carbon­to­hydrogen linkages.  Hydrocarbons can release a lot of  energy.        ​ ● Polysaccharides, the polymers of sugar, have storage and structural roles  ● The structure and function of a polysaccharide are determined by its sugar monomers and the  positions of bonds.    Storage Polysaccharides  ● Starch, a storage polysaccharide of plants,consists entirely of glucose monomers  ● Plants store surplus starch as granules.     Glycogen  is a storage polysaccharide in animals  ● Humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells    Structural Polysaccharides  ● The polysaccharide cellulose is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells  ● Cellulose is a polymer of glucose    What happens when we ingest cellulose?  ● Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing αlinkages can’t hydrolyze β linkages in cellulose  ● Cellulose in human food passes through the digestive tract as insoluble fiber      Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules  Lipids have little or no affinity for water!  Lipids are hydrophobic!  Lipids are important in long­term  energy storage!  The most biologically important lipids are fats,  phospholipids , and steroids    Fats  Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and 3 fatty acids.    ● Fatty acids vary in length (number of carbons) and in the number and locations of double bonds  ● Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds  ● Animal fats, solid at room temperature  ● Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds.  ● Plant and fish fats, can be called oils, liquid at room temp      Phospholipids and steroids are important lipids with a variety of  functions  Phospholipids are the major component of all cell membrane . Phospholipids cluster into a bilayer of phospholipids.      ● Phospholipids and steroids are important lipids with a variety of function  ● A common component in animal cell membranes a starting material for making steroids  Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in  a wide range of functions  ● Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells  ● Protein functions include defense, transportation, storage, cellular communication, movement,  and structural support.  ● Life would not be possible without catalysts  ● Enzymatic proteins act as catalysts, to speed up chemical reactions without being consumed in the  reaction  ● Proteins are unbranched polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids    Protein Structure and Function  A functional protein consists of one or more polypeptides precisely twisted, folded, and coiled into a  unique shape   The amino acid sequence of each polypeptide leads to a protein’s three­dimensional structure  A protein’s structure determines its function.  Four Levels of Protein Structure    ● Proteins are very diverse, but share three levels of structure called primary, secondary, and  tertiary structure  ● A fourth level, quaternary structure, arises when a protein consists of two or more polypeptide  chains    The primary structure of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids.          Secondary structure, found in most proteins, consists of localized coils and folds in the polypeptide chain.            Tertiary structure is the fully folded polypeptide chain(protein).              Proteins have a wide range of functions and structures  ● If a protein’s shape is altered, it can no longer function.  ● In the process of denaturation, a protein unravels, loses its specific shape, and loses its function.  ● Proteins can be denatured by changes in salt concentration, changes in pH, or high heat.    Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary  information  ● The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by a unit of inheritance called a gene.  ● Genes are made of DNA, a nucleic acid made of monomers called nucleotid s. The Roles of Nucleic Acids  There are two types of nucleic acids:  ● Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  ● Ribonucleic acid (RNA)  ● DNA provides directions for its own replication  ● DNA also directs synthesis of messenger RNA(mRNA) and, through mRNA, controls protein  synthesis.  Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides  ● RNA is usually a single polynucleotide strand.   DNA nitrogenous bases are  ● adenine (A) Adenine​­>​Thymine ​and ​Cytosine​­>​Guanine  ●  Thymine(T)  ●  cytosine (C)  ● guanine (G)  ● RNA also has A, C, and G, but instead of T, it has uracil (U).  *These do not match with anything else.  At all.    What is the difference between DNA and  RNA?  DNA­​Deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic  information used in development, growth, reproduction, and function of all  living organisms as well as various viruses.  It is a DOUBLE HELIX.  It also has THYMINE, NOT URACIL.            RNA­​RIbonucleic acid, it is a nucleic acid that is present in all living cells.  It acts as a messenger that carries instructions from DNA for controlling  the synthesis of proteins.  However, some viruses with RNA  instead of DNA carry the genetic information.  It is a SINGLE  STRAND.  It also has URACIL, NOT THYMINE.   


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