New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 4 notes

by: Janaki Padmakumar

Week 4 notes CCJ3701

Janaki Padmakumar

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover material related to measurement, validity and reliability
Research Methods in Criminology
Chris Gibson
Class Notes
criminology, research methods, validity, Reliability, measurement
25 ?




Popular in Research Methods in Criminology


This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janaki Padmakumar on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ3701 at University of Florida taught by Chris Gibson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Criminology in CRIMINOLOGY at University of Florida.


Reviews for Week 4 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/17/16
Week 4 notes Research Methods L5 Measurement, validity and applicability Abstract concepts being measured- violence, delinquency, substance use, etc. Many researchers use different measures to examine the same concept- difficult to compare results between researchers since different measures are being used Measurement:  Concept- derived from theories, ideas or prior research  Conceptualization- define what the term is (topic of research) o Important for people to understand (across subjects or researchers) what a concept means o E.g. Substance abuse- what observations should be associated with it? To obtain a measurement, potential observations/indicators should be defined  Barely able to speak, leaning on a building with liquor bottle  College student drinking heavily at party  Someone in AA drinking a beer o Some concepts of interests don't have multiple indicators (like sex- ask if male or female) o Issues like substance abuse have multiple indicators since multiple substances can be used o None of these examples can clearly be used to define substance abuse or not because they can be interpreted in different situations/scenarios - all very different observations that are perhaps related to same issue o DSM-IV definition "Repeated use of a substance to the extent that it interferes with adequate social, vocational and self-care functioning"  Operationalization- clear definition of concept and measures being used (what operations are used based on concept definition) o Process of specifying operations that indicate variable values for each case o Indicators are used to measure concepts o Can use different operation types given concept of interest  Asking questions  Observing social interaction  Taking urine or blood samples  Taping physical spaces  Retrieval of official data and statistics o If multiple measures of same data exist, include those to triangulate results (e.g. like self reports and official data being used in conjunction) o E.g. measuring disorder in a neighborhood- objective measurement vs. perceptions of residents  Measurement- values assigned that differ between units of analysis; can be classified or grouped- determines statistical analysis to be used o Complexity of mathematical means that are used to express relationships between variable values  Nominal (weakest)- attributes are only named  Categorical or qualitative  Values do not have mathematical interpretation  Vary in kind or quality, but not amount  Attributes, not values  Does not represent more or less than  States if groups are same or different e.g. male or female (0 or 1)  Types of nominal measures: race, gender, sex, occupation, hair color, political affiliations, etc.  Ordinal- attributes can be ordered  Categories that can be ranked- more than or less than classifications  Specifies order of cases and how they are classified  Discrete categories with >/< distinctions  Likert scale- strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree  Not a problem, problem, big problem  Educational levels o Continuous/ quantitative measurements Numerical level of measurement Interval- distance is meaningful  Different from one another  More than or less than  How much more/less than  No fixed zero point  Can add and subtract, equal interval distances  Ratios are not meaningful  *think temperature- this can extend into the negatives, which is ok with interval, but not ratio  Ratio- absolute zero (zero means zero)  Fixed zero point  Multiply or divide  Can create ratios (how many times greater)  Age, number of arrests, number of church burnings, length of residence, number or times married o Collect at the highest complexity possible so that it can be collapsed down Multiple items measures  Why not use single items o Single items do not make responses that stay consistent over time- highly unreliable  Can be "yes" today, switch to "no" tomorrow o Concepts have a broad scope and cannot be easily evaluated with one question  Multiple item scales: o Scales have multiple items o These items are combined or summed o Each item needs to measure something with an underlying, quantitative measurement continuum o Respondents give ratings of each item o Likert scale items L6 Measurement quality Definitions and term application questions List RQ and ID independent and dependent variable Readings and lectures on study guide Applying terminology to research scenarios- variable identification, unit of analysis How do you measure something well?  Psychometrics- methods by which we go about examining measurement quality  Two components make up psychometrics: o Reliability: measure consistently measures a factor; yields consistent scores when the item being measured remains constant  Consistency of measurement o Validity: measure what its intended to measure; match between conceptual and operational definition  Accuracy of measurement  Important because it generated statistical standards for measurement quality  Self reporting- college alcohol surveys about drinking behaviors o Measure twice within a short interval of time o Ask subject 1 how much they drink- answer remains not at all- reliable and valid measure o Subject 2 says not at all both time (reliably measuring), but he has a drink in hand (inaccurate measure)  Combining different measures allow for triangulation- increase in validity Four types of reliability (consistently measures something that is assumed not to change):  Inter-rater reliability o Observation in neighborhoods checklist for physical disorder in neighborhood- abandoned buildings, grafitti, damage, bars on windows etc. o Ask surveyor to go into neighborhood and record area- return to lab and see if developed checklist can reliably measure disorder in neighborhood o Give systematic checklist to two different people and separate them- let them watch the same video o Each mark what they see in video about disorder o If checklist is reliable, person 1 and person 2 should have very similar results (high correlation means developed instrument is reliable) o If low correlation between raters, instrument is unreliable  Wording in checklist, definitions, instruction confusing all can contribute to lack of correlation  Test-retest reliability o One person measured twice- test and subsequent retest o E.g. IQ testing- Wechler's test for verbal intelligence- administer to a person at time 1, and administer to same person at time 2 o If measure is reliable, then very similar scores should be obtained if taken within a short time difference o Requires financial resources  Parallel forms reliability o Apply randomly to two groups- should be a correlation if measuring the same thing o Less commonly used  Internal consistency reliability o Most commonly used in criminology and psychology o Multiple item scales- narcissistic personality inventory- has multiple statements participants respond to; using statistics, responses to each attributes are formed into a composite score o Score represents responses to all items on that measure concept o Need to assess how multiple responses remain consistent o Coefficient should be close to 1- increase in reliability; if closer to 0 then unreliable; R>.8 to claim reliable measure


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.