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by: Hope Good
Hope Good
GPA 3.0

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Cognitive Processing
Dr. Roach
Class Notes
Cognitive Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hope Good on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 360 at University of South Carolina Aiken taught by Dr. Roach in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Processing in Psychology at University of South Carolina Aiken.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Cognitive Processing Chapter 1  Cognitive Psychology started as the study of knowledge  Socrates  1 greek philosopher o What we know of Socrates came from PLATO founder of rationalism o Empirical Observation: true knowledge comes from logical analysis (observable knowledge) o What our minds create is the true form of things o Essence of things come from the ideas and not the object o Logical examination is true knowledge o Plato is for math and Aristotle is biology and physics o Aristotle is the founder of empiricism  2 theories o rationalism: knowledge through rational analysis o empiricism: knowledge comes from observation  Descartes: European rationalist o “I think; therefore, I am” o Illusions deception of our observation can lead to a problem because that means our senses are deceiving us.  Locke: association born with a blank slate (tabula rasa) o Our minds are empty when we are born and we fill it chalkboard of the mind! o Our experience is empirical observation o We gain knowledge from association of sensory inputs  Kant: combined rationalism and empiricalism o Disregarded the wrongs and combined the rights o Like the nature v. nurture debate we experience a little bit of both  Wundt: founder of psychology o First to be called a psychologist and had the first lab located in Germany dedicated to psychology o Introspection: his student Titchner helped o 2 researches  reaction time  consciousness of sensation and feelings  analyze  discover  determine why o INTROSPECTION: observing our own thoughts (meditation)  Impossible to test objectively  Not directly observable  Data can’t be collected  Behaviorism: overcoming limitations o Focused on observable behaviors o Uncovered principles of how behavior changes in response to stimuli rewarding and punishments  Stimulus response is not enough to explain behavior  Behavior has a “mental” cause  Could not explain  How to remember a story  Language development  Stages of development and why people interpret things differently at different stages  Different stimuli cause same behavior or same stimuli caused different behaviors  Introspection and behaviorism o Introspection not specific enough o Study of mental events under behaviorism Chapter 2: The neural basis for cognition  Brain behavior functions o Imaging of brain activity o Impairment after damage  Capgras Syndrome: the beliefs that loved ones closest to you have been replaced by imposters o Recognize loved ones but believe they are not them o May think they are kidnapped or worse o May see slight defects o There is a conflict in brain with intact recognition, lack of familiarity with no emotion! o Neuroimaging: fMRI (O2 depletion)/ MRI o Amygdala damage results in lack of emotional response o Prefrontal cortex damage impairs reasoning  illogical thoughts are not filtered o Factual and emotional knowledge are dissociated o Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience complement each other  Amygdala linked to emotional processing in general o A single process is broken up by the brain and processed by different areas  The principal structure of the Brain o Phineas Gage: prefrontal brain damage from a pipe change his personality, inhibition, behaviors and other executive functions o Brain lesions lead to a loss of function associated with normal processing o Brain  Hindbrain: pons, medulla and spinal cord  Midbrain: top part of brain stem  Forebrain: cerebral cortex o Convolutions o Fissures o Left/right cerebral hemispheres o Hindbrain  Atop spinal cord  Basic rhythms  Alertness  Cerebellum  Movements and balance  Sensory o Midbrain  Coordinates movement, especially eye movement  Includes parts of the auditory pathways  Regulates the experience of pain o Forebrain  Cortex, convolutions  Subcortical structures o Axes  Left-right: longitudinal fissure: connected by corpus callosum/anterior commissure  Anterior-posterior: longitudinal fissure  Frontal-temporal: lateral fissure o 4 lobes  frontal  parietal  temporal  occipital o Subcortical of the forebrain  Thalamus  Hypothalamus  Limbic system  Amygdala  Hippocampus  Cingulate cortex  Fornix o Brain is roughly symmetrical  What you find on the left you roughly find on the right as well.  Commissures connect hemispheres  Corpus callosum is the largest o Split-brain patients  Severing of the corpus callosum (usually severe epileptic patients)  Treatment of epilepsy  Limits left-right communication  Cortical organization is contralateral (left controls right side; right controls left side)  Lateralization in split brain patient  Left sees the object on the right and can voice what it is  Right sees the object on the left but can not voice what they see, can only point.  Neuropsychology o Clinical neuropsychology o Lesions o Patient H.M.  hippocampus removal  Data from neuroimaging o Computerized axial tomography (CT) o Positron emission tomography (PET) contrast die!  Visual stimulation results in occipital lobe activity o Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) o Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMIR)  Deals with oxygen levels o Electroencephalogram (EEG)  Buildup of chemical neurotransmitter  Firing of action potential in a neuron  Millions of neurons create an electrical field  Cap with electrodes o Every methods has limitations  EEG sensitive to time, not location  fMRI detects location but not time sensitive  CT and PET scans detect brain structures not activity o Combining techniques is powerful  EEG time and fMRI location o Fusiform Face Area: is active when viewing faces  Prosopagnosia: lesion to area leads to face blindness o Parahippocampal Place Area is active when viewing houses o Activity may be correlated with task: brain region may not be necessary  Transcranial magnetic stimulate (TMS) deactivates an area o Specific brain areas have specific functions  Cerebral Cortex o Primary motor o Premotor (somatosensory)


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