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Islam and Politics week 4

by: Katie Blackmer

Islam and Politics week 4 GOVT 345 001

Marketplace > George Mason University > Goverment > GOVT 345 001 > Islam and Politics week 4
Katie Blackmer
GPA 3.71

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These notes cover all of week 4 lecture.
Islam and Politics
Heba El-Shazli
Class Notes
islam, Politics
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Blackmer on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GOVT 345 001 at George Mason University taught by Heba El-Shazli in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Islam and Politics in Goverment at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chapter 4—Islam in the system The evolution of Islamism as political strategy How have domestic and international politics—and processes of globalization—affected how groups pursue social and political activity in the name of Islam? • Modernity constitutes the very preconditions for the emergence of Islamism as a distinct political strategy • As globalization has systematically reached into Muslim societies and restructured social life, so has Islamism itself changed with the times Three (overlapping) strands in the political sociology of Islamism • Classical Islamists (e.g., Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt) • “Participatory Islamism” (e.g., PJD in Morocco; En-Nahda in Tunisia) • “Muslim democrats” or “post-Islamists” (e.g., AKP in Turkey) Egypt: changing fortunes of the Muslim Brotherhood I  Anwar Sadat allowed space for a “rehabilitated” MB in the 1970s  From the 1970s, the MB created significant networks of social influence  Perception of MB co-optation by Sadat led to factionalization and the emergence of radical splinter groups  Sadat was assassinated in 1981 after having signed a peace agreement with Israel Egypt: changing fortunes of the Muslim Brotherhood II  From the late 1970s, the MB made society the locus of its reform efforts  Since 1984, the MB has contested elections in Egypt  After 1987, the MB leveraged opportunities provided by economic turmoil  MB electoral successes prompted crackdowns from the early 1990s  From the late 1970s, the MB made society the locus of its reform efforts  Since 1984, the MB has contested elections in Egypt  After 1987, the MB leveraged opportunities provided by economic turmoil  MB electoral successes prompted crackdowns from the early 1990s Egypt: Islamic intellectual centrism—the Wasatiyya movement  The Wasatiyya approach emerged in the 1980s and 1990s  Wasatiyya approach holds that Islam needs to be regarded in conjunction with national interests, economic realities, and cultural traditions  Failed efforts to establish a political party in the form of Hizb al-Wasat emerged from 1996 Egypt: changing fortunes of the Muslim Brotherhood III  Emergence of a clear generational divide within MB ranks in the 1990s:  Younger generation looking for a more inclusive Islamic politics  Attempts in the late 1990s to set up a Party of the Center (Hizb al-Wasat)  Emergence within the MB of a “technological generation” that was largely excluded from leadership positions  Strong showing by the MB in the 2005 parliamentary elections and increased MB assertiveness prompted the Mubarak regime to crack down Egypt: Islamist politics after the 2011 uprising  The January 25 Uprising was essentially non-ideological in character  The MB were late to join the protests and among the first to indicate a willingness to compromise and negotiate with Mubarak  Formation of the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) announced in April 2011  Diversification and expansion of the landscape of Islamic politics in Egypt  Moderate, centrist Islamists as represented by Hizb al-Wasat  Ex-jihadi groups, such as Al-Gamaa al-Islamiyya, form political parties  Emergence of a number of new Salafi parties, such as Hizb al-Nour  MB-led coalition won plurality of the vote (38 percent) in 2012 parliamentary election  Surprise showing by the Salafis (28 percent)  Supreme Constitutional Court later declared the parliamentary election invalid  MB’s Mohammed Morsi won a narrow (52 percent) victory in presidential elections  Morsi found himself increasingly at odds with the military and judiciary  In June 2013, the Tamarod movement brought at least 15 million opponents of the president onto Egyptian streets  On July 3, 2013, the army chief announced that President Morsi had been removed from power  Widespread crackdown and state violence against  MB follows EGYPT: assessing Egypt’s short experiment with Islamist rule  Islamists were in power for too short a period to be able to say much that is definitive  Hard to point to any explicitly Islamic initiative that Morsi’s government pursued  MB left in the hands of very conservative leaders  MB leaders were not naturally inclined to cooperate with other political actors  Arguably, the legacy of the MB was most apparent in the paranoid, exclusivist, and insular political style that Morsi and his FJP colleagues adopted Algeria: the Islamist victory that almost was • Founded in Algiers on 18 February 1989 in the al-Sunna mosque in Bab el Oued, the FIS was legalized by the Interior Ministry on 16 September 1989. • The Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) centers its ideology on the strict respect of Islamic values. This means legislation has to defer to the imperatives of the Sharia in all fields. The concept of democracy is assimilated to atheism, and the legalization of parties « which recommend contradicting Islam » is condemned. • Before the first round of the December 1991 parliamentary elections, certain FIS leaders spoke of banning secular and socialist parties if there was a FIS majority. • Far from being homogeneous, the FIS is marked by clear internal philosophical dissension between the Djazaara clan (the « Djazarists », supporters of dialogue and gradual Islamization), close to the Egyptian Muslim Brothers, and the Salaafia clan (the « Salafists », supporters of a radical Islamization of Algerian society and more internationalist).  Idea of contentious came through Islam, going back to the faith as it’s going to get rid of authoritative power  FIS became GIA, Algeria military Tunisia: Islamists and the Legacy of Secularism • Who are the Tunisian Islamists? – different strategy than their neighbors in Egypt • Tunisia’s main Islamist part, En-Nahda (Renaissance) was established in 1989 as the successor to the Islamic Tendency Movement (MTI – Mouvement de la Tendence Islamique) exiled • Tunisia had been intensely secular republic since its independence from France in 1956 • Non-religious French style • Instituted more of a police state, ben ally • Economics bad Military in Tunisa- tiny, never had a problem The future of Islamist participation: issues and challenges  The ability of Islamists to build social capital in civil society has been crucial to their success  Until 2011, Islamists often represented the only political alternative to unpopular and authoritarian regimes  Academic scholarship offers analytical frameworks that help us to think about some of the structural factors that bear on Islamist political participation  The “inclusion–moderation thesis” (Schwedler 2006)  The concept of “Islamist auto-reform” (Wickham 2006) The Arab Uprisings and the future of Islamist political strategy  Short periods of Islamism in government in Tunisia and Egypt do not allow us to definitively answer the concerns of those who see instrumentalism, or the specter of radicalism, in Islamist political participation  Islamist “incumbents,” such as the MB, have lost their monopoly on the claim to be the sole articulators of a social and political project premised on Islam  Will seasoned Islamist oppositionists be able to reinvent themselves as problem-solvers and purveyors of effective governance?  If Islamists come to believe that they will not be permitted to retain power even after “playing by the rules,” might they reconsider altogether the strategic value of formal political participation?


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