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PSYC 317 - 3

by: Tricia Mae Fortuna

PSYC 317 - 3 317

Tricia Mae Fortuna
GPA 3.49

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About this Document

Anatomy of the Eye. Stages of Perception. Sensory Coding. Focusing Problems.
Sensation and Perception
M. Paz Galupo
Class Notes
anatomy, eye, fovea, retina, myopia, rods, cones, astigmatism, transduction, receptors, accommodations, potentials, neurons
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tricia Mae Fortuna on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 317 at Towson University taught by M. Paz Galupo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Sensation and Perception in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
317 9/13/16 No method of constant stimuli, method of adjustment, method of limits Pick 1 essays to write and upload in blackboard and study the essays (Intro and conclusion paragraphs) 30 points Potentials = Electrical  Separation of charge – potential  Movement of charge – electrical Neurons: Binary Message  Electrostatic Pressure  Firing – Action Potential (AP) o K+ concentrated outside o Na+ concentrated inside o +40mV (positive environment)  Not Firing – Resting Potential (RP) o Na+ concentrated outside o K+ concentrated inside o -70mV (negative environment) o Before and after the Action Potential  Sodium-Potassium Pump come in to reset Electro-chemical Language of Brain  Electro: Within Cells (AP and RP) Ions across membranes  Chemical: Between cells – neurotransmitters across synapse Synapse: Point of communication between neurons  Pre-synaptic Cell: sending information  Post-synaptic Cell: Receiving information  Structure of Synapse: o Axon terminal of pre-synaptic cell o Synaptic Cleft o Dendrite spine of post-synaptic cell  Chemical transmission across synapse electrical o 1. AP reaches axon terminal (AT) of pre-synaptic Cell – (Electrical Pre-synaptic) o 2. Synaptic Vesicles containing neurotransmitters (NT) to migrate to the pre-synaptic membrane o 3. Vesicles fuse with pre-synaptic membrane which causes a release of NT into Synaptic Cleft Chemical. NT diffuse across cleft, bind with receptor sites on the post-synaptic membrane o 5. Ion channels open – Electrical Event = POST-SYNAPTIC POTENTIALS (PSP) electrical 317 electrical Chemical electrical Post-synaptic Potentials Resting Potential Action Potential Occurs in a Dendritic Spine Cell Body Cell Body Results of Chemical Transmission across synapse Resting Firing Excitatory PSP (EPSP) – depolarize cell/more likely to fire Inhibitory PSP (IPSP) – hyperpolarize cell/less likely to fire Graded Potential Focusing Problems: Focus – Parallel lines of light intersect in retina  Myopia – Nearsightedness: Parallel lines of light intersect before hitting the retina/Eyeball is too big  Hyperopia – Farsightedness: Parallel lines of light intersect after hitting the retina/Eyeball is too small  Presbyopia “old eye” – problems with focusing because of age  Astigmatism – cornea is misshapen or there’s a wrinkle on it  Anatomy of the EYE  STAGE 1: Accessory Structure o Cornea: 80% Focusing Light – fixed curvature – protective layer – bent light o Lens: 20% bending light (fine tune) – behind the pupil – responsive curvature  Accommodation: changes its shape in order to bring objects of difference distances into focus o Pupil: Hole – work together with Iris o Iris: Pigmented muscle – modify amount of light that gets in the eye constricting pupil  STAGE 2: Receptors o Fovea: Center of Retina o Retina: Receptors – slice of brain at the back of the eye – made up 5 different cells  Stage 2 – Transduction:  Receptors: Rod & Cones  Horizontal Cells  Bipolar Cells  Amocrine Cells  Ganglion Cells – axons make up optic nerve o Rods o Cones 317  STAGE 3 o Optic Nerve: Ganglion cell axons SENSORY CODING – Action Potentials  Place Theory or Place Code – suggests that the interpretation of APs involves where the activity is  Frequency Code – suggests that a neuron’s firing rate (# of pulses per second). Different meanings can be communicated by different firing rates  Pattern of Action Potentials (within a single cell) – Each pattern of firing of the same cell has a different meaning


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