Psych 101 Notes
Psych 101 Notes Psychology 101
Popular in principles of psychology 101
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Briana Notetaker on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 101 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Allyson Meloni in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see principles of psychology 101 in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Principles ofPsychology Mod1 ProfessorMeloni WHATIS PSYCHOLOGY? “Who arewe? What produces our thoughts? Our feelings? Ouractions? And how are weto understand and manage thosearound us?” 1. History of Psychology: th a. Aristotlein the 4 century BCE wasthefirst to useobservation andquestioning of thebodyto mind(psyche)relationship. In 1879,Psychologywasclassifiedas a truescience becauseof -> b. WilliamWundt i. added observationandexperimentsto boostpsychologyasa science. ii. believed psychologyto be“thescience ofmentallife”. iii. opened thefirst psychologylaboratory c. Edward B. Titchener i. used theconcept of self-reportdata(askingapatient howtheyfeel) ii. this is also knownasintrospection(patientexaminingtheir ownthoughtsand feelings) iii. structuralismwithWundt, usedto reveal structureof thehumanmind. d. WilliamJames i. considered examining theevolved functionsof humanthoughts,behavior, and feelings. ii. created functionalism(whywehavetheexperiences wehave) usingsomeof Charles Darwin’s theories Functionalism asksWHY and Structuralism asksWHAT. e. Mary WhitonCalkins i. first APAfemalepresident ii. Studied whatpeople remembered f. MargaretFloyWashburn i. second APAfemalepresident ii. compared thebehaviors ofanimal vs humans 2. PsychologyDevelops: a. Behaviorism-scientific studyofobservablebehavior i. Psychologyshouldbeconsidered an Objectivescience thatstudies behavior withoutreferenceto mentalprocesses b. John BWatson (usedclassicalconditioningstudiedbyPavlovinPavlov’s(dog) and B.F. skinner(usedoperantconditioning) Classicalcondition-learning throughtheestablishment of associationsbetween different events and stimuli. Operantconditioning-behavioris controlled by positiveand/ornegative consequences c. FreudianPsychology-belief that ourchildhood could affects ourbehaviorand thoughtprocess in adulthood d. Humanisticpsychology-explained howourcurrent environment madepeople into fully functionalhumansor inhibited us i. Led by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow e. CognitivePsychology(1960s)-exploredhowinformationis perceived, processed, andremembered i. Cognitiverevolution occurred with theuse ofcomputers andled thefield back to its interest in mental processes ii. Cognitiveneuroscience-thescience ofthemind and thebrain Psychologybecameofficially definedas thestudyofbehaviorand mentalprocesses 3. ContemporaryPsychology a. “Naturevs Nurture” question i. Nature-belief that ourtraits are already set by ourgenes ii. Nurture-belief that ourtraits develop because ofour environment b. EvolutionaryPsychology-focusesonhow ourbehaviorhas evolved genetically c. BehaviorGenetics-focusesonthedifferences of howgenetics and the environment shapeourbehavior d. Cross-culturalpsychology-focuseson howculture shapesbehavior i. Underlying processare universal e. Genderpsychology-focusesonthedifferences of male andfemale thought process and behavior i. Male andfemale are very similar f. Martin Seligman i. Recreated positivepsychology(usesscientificmethodand explores human flourishing) 4. Psychology’s3Main Levels ofAnalysis a. BiologicalInfluences i. Ex. genetically influenced traits ii. naturalselection of adaptivetraits b. PsychologicalInfluences i. learned fears and otherlearned expectations ii. emotionalresponses c. Social-CulturalInfluences i. peer and othergroupinfluences ii. compelling models