Journalism 1010 Chapter 5 Reading Notes
Journalism 1010 Chapter 5 Reading Notes JOUR 1010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 1010 at Ohio University taught by Robert Stewart in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see The Future of Media in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chapter 5 Notes Visual Media: Photography, Movies, and Television Cord-cutters: those who have switched from cable or other connections to internet- delivered TV Cord-nevers: Those who have known only mobile or wireless internet delivered TV Photography Two main functions: o Surveillance: provides information about processes, issues, events, and other developments o Cultural Transmission History of photography: Earliest recorded use of a camera obscura is in the writings of Leonardo da Vinci who explains how it can aid drawing scenery o camera obscura: dark box or room with a small hole that allows an inverted image of an outside scene to be shown on the opposite inner wall Frenchman Louis Daguerre invented the daguerreotype in 1839 o Photograph created by exposing a positive image on a metal plate Mathew B. Brady: 19 century photographer acclaimed for his civil war images Industry Today Most powerful cameras Digital cameras allow anyone to take professional quality pictures without manual camera adjustments Movies Primarily to entertain History of movie industry: Thomas Edison created the Kinetoscope in 1891 Two French brothers patents a more portable camera, film-processing unit in 1895 Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, founded in 1922, became the standard for color motion pictures for the next three decades o Not until 1950s did color films, captured without prisms, beam splitters, or alternating frames, became more common Sound was easier than color o By 1929, recording and playing back sound with the image had become more practicable Hollywood Movie Moguls Warner Brothers Walt Disney Samuel Goldwyn: Goldwyn Pictures Corporation Marcus Loew: merged with Metro pictures, Samuel Goldwyn’s Goldwyn Picture Corporation, and Mayer Pictures, creating Metro-Goldwyn Mayer (MGM) pictures Louis B. Mayer: Louis B. Mayer Pictures, Became VP of MGM, formed Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Independent films: films made by production companies separate from the main Hollywood studios Rise of television reduced theater audiences The Director as Auteur Auteur: director as storyteller o Introduced by French film critic Andre Bazin following WWII Technological influences on movie genres Genres: topical categories Digital technologies allow filmmakers to design and populate entire realistic worlds o Ex. Star Wars, computer-generated effects New technologies also affect what movies are popular o Slower-paced, character driven movies based on historical events appeal less to younger audiences DVDs and streaming Changes have altered the video market o The move from videotapes to DVDs (portable, better video and audio, extra features) DVDs slowly being replaced by Blu-Ray o Digital video also allowed low-budget directors to shoot professional quality footage at a fraction of actual film cost o How people rent/buy video has changed (shift towards online: Netflix, etc.) Many experts believe that DVDs will eventually go away because of popularity of streaming Movie Industry Today Given high costs, making a movie requires a big studio A motion picture on average costs over $70 million, movies often top $100 million o Marketing can cost $30 million to $50 million o Production is 25 percent of budget Process o Writer starts with script (original or adaptation) o Once project has been approved, production can begin o Post production Marketing and distribution: Key to movie’s success Main channel for marketing movies is TV advertising o Heavy advertising occurs two weeks before release 60 percent of spending is on network and cable television advertising Web and word of mouth is important, but these and social media are still a small part of marketing (growing) Movie-Industry Business Model Audiences have been declining over the past several years as box office revenues have risen o Increase of ticket prices of about 5 percent a year and 3D movies, which are about $3 more per ticket DVD rentals and sales used to be the biggest money generator for movies, but sales have dropped in recent years because of streaming services Licensing deals can also create revenue o Ex. Toy Story studio received royalties for licensing the rights to make toys, clothes, etc. Product placement also creates revenue (although the amount is small in comparison to box office) Television Terrestrial (over the air broadcast TV) used to be the norm, but now more than 2/3 of homes get TV via cable or satellite. Time shift: recording of an audio or video event for later listening or viewing Place shift: viewing TV from anywhere using the internet to access video originally delivered digitally to the home or another location History of Television Most TV sets traditionally used a cathode-ray tube o Device in older televisions and computers using electron beams to transmit images to the screen o First functional CRT built by British chemist William Crookes in 1878 Much early TV programming came directly from radio, where talented actors and comedians such as Jack Benny adapted their routines for TV Stage and film influenced television (ex. dramas) The 1950s is referred to as the golden age of television o The Tonight Show o I Love Lucy o The Twilight Zone o Etc. MTV debuted in 1981 as a cable channel with its first music video “Video Killed the Radio Star” Several cable channels began to develop their own dramatic programming occasionally attracting more viewers than many network shows Soap operas used to be a staple of early television Exceedingly popular in commercial television’s first full decade was the game or quiz show o By the end of the 1958 TV season, there were 22 network quiz shows (one of every 5 shows) o As it happened, many were rigged. New rules were created for regulating game shows. o Talk show replaced many game shows. Sports Sports events draw some of the biggest audiences Sports provide an ongoing venue for technical experimentation o Instant reply o Slow motion replay o Enhance viewing, assist officiating in certain sports o ESPN is dominant sport channel drawing an industry high $6 billion in annual subscriber fees o Media play a role in determining what types of sports get promoted and thus which ones get lucrative corporate sponsorships Reality Shows User-generated content (UGC): content created by the general public for distribution by digital media o Example: America’s Funniest Home Videos Profitable for television networks because production costs are much lower than that of scripted programs with actors, sets, writers, and paid union wages Popular in Europe and Asia Earn extra money from product placement Digital Television High Definition Television (HDTV): modern television technology that produces a much high resolution image, sharper color, wider aspect image, etc. Digital Television: television system in which all information broadcast by cable or through the air is in digital form Multicast: simultaneous transmission of multiple channels of compressed content or the same content but at different times Television Distribution Broadcast TV: traditional means of over the air TV distribution for networks, affiliates, and local stations o Dominated until 1980s when cable and satellite TV made program and audience fragmentation inevitable o 15 percent of U.S. households receive terrestrial signals on their primary TV set, but broadcast programs are also carried on cable and satellite Cable TV: o Community Antenna Television (CATV): cable television developed in 1948 so communities in hilly or remote terrain could still access television broadcasts o In the 1980s, the government began deregulating the industry, permitting companies to buy cable television systems nationwide o By the end of the decade, 50 percent of U.S. households were wired for cable TV Satellite TV: o Direct broadcast satellite emerged in the United States in the 1990s o DirecTV launched in 1994 o Prior to that, most direct-to-home satellite systems required expensive, large dishes Television Industry Today Station ownership has continued to consolidate since the passage of the 1996 Telecommunications Act More than 10,000 local cable systems and two satellite distributors, yet consolidation in the video-distribution industry has resulted in a relatively few companies controlling cable television and satellite TV for more than 90 percent of American subscribers Ratings are calculated by dividing households viewing a program by the total number of TV households o Ex. rating of 25 would mean one-quarter of all TV households watched a particular program
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