New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

IAFF 1005, Week 2 Notes

by: Samantha Notetaker

IAFF 1005, Week 2 Notes IAFF 1005

Samantha Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

All about the levels of analysis in International Affairs
Introduction to International Affairs: A Washington Perspective
Brown, M
Class Notes
international relations
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to International Affairs: A Washington Perspective

Popular in International Affairs

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 1005 at George Washington University taught by Brown, M in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Affairs: A Washington Perspective in International Affairs at George Washington University.


Reviews for IAFF 1005, Week 2 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/17/16
9/6/2016 Governance  Decolonization o 1939- 1/3 of world lived under colonial rule o Decolonization was disorderly at best o Many states were born weak and are still weak o Weak State rankings  Somalia  South Sudan  Central African Republic  Sudan  Yemen  Syria  Chad  DRC  Afghanistan  Haiti  Also on ‘high alert’: Iraq, Guinea Nigeria, Pakistan, Burundi, Zimbabwe  A total of 125 states are under ‘alert’ or ‘warning’  Only 53 states are defined at ‘stable/sustainable’  Corruption o Corruption is a global problem  114 states have ‘serious problems’  No state is corruption is free o Corruption is growing due to globalization and the rise of drug use and human trafficking o Corruption is a transnational problem due to the criminal organizations involved  Democracy o Democracy is the worst form of government -except for all the alternatives -Winston Churchill o How Democracy promotes stability  Mechanisms for participation in governance  Feedback to improve  Transparency o Democratization is a contest for power  Takes years and decades o Democracy is winning  1973-  69 authoritarian  38 partly free  44 free countries  2015-  50 authoritarian  59 partly free  86 free countries o Democracy faces challenges  There have been setbacks  72 countries have become less free Security and Conflict Trends  Good news: Conflict between states has declines since 1945  Bad News: The post-cold war era has been violent and deadly  Today, most conflicts take place within states o In state conflicts are deadly and difficult to resolve, most involve direct attacks on civilians and many are ‘internationalized’ Security and Conflict prospects  The world has 193 recognized states  +575 groups with self-governance  300-9000 ethnic groups  Ongoing, structural, conflict management problems o 15,000 to 16,000 nuclear weapons in the world 193 Member-States in the United Nations U.S. NIC Report: Global Trends 2030 Game Changers and Black Swans  Unexpected, system shaking events o EU/Euro collapse o A democratic or collapsed China o A reformed Iran o A nuclear war of WMD/cyber attack Why This Matters: Progress  Seemingly intractable problems have gone away: the Cold War, the Soviet- American nuclear arms race  Giving peace a chance  Global economy has more than tripled since 1990 o Global Poverty has been substantially reduced  Gender equality has improved Why This Matters: Problems  Democratic, economic, resource and environmental pressures are mounting Why This Matters: Action  Progress has been slow, limited, and uneven but progress has been made Key Components and Forces in International Relations  Levels of analysis  Actors and Interests  Power  Ethics and Morality Levels of Analysis  The Individual o Intra-state  The state o Supra-state  The international system The Individual Level  Human Nature o Evil, greed, vanity, hubris, fear, anger, etc.  Decision making dynamics o Information processing problems, persistence of belief systems, misuse of analogies (cognitive psychology)  Risk taking tendencies o Taking risks to avoid loses (prospect theory)  Leaders o Idiosyncratic proclivities and problems o Cognitive, emotional, social  Solutions? o Multiple advocacy, devil’s advocates, checks/balances The State Level  Some types of states are more peaceful/belligerent o Kant: democracies are peaceful o Cobden: trading, capitalist countries are peaceful o Lenin: capitalist systems are inherently expansionist  Communist systems are inherently peaceful o Kennan: soviet/communist system is aggressive  Recent social science o Democracies are less likely to go to war with each other o Democratizing systems are volatile o Greedy/aggressive/hegemony-seeking states vs. needy/defensive/security-seeking states  Solutions? o Regime change/reform, democracy promotion The Intra-State Level  Governmental and policy making arrangements o Constitutional provisions, governmental institutions, interest groups, factions and public opinion  Organizational processes o Governmental policies are shaped and implemented by large governmental agencies and organizations o Organizations have established idiosyncratic beliefs, cultures, doctrines, standard operating procedures  Bureaucratic Politics o Bureaucratic interests are not identical to national interests  National policies are often the product of b interests, decisions, and negotiations  Solutions? o Governmental reform, leadership at the top Supra-State Level  The European Union project o States coming together to promote economic development, political cooperation, democracy., human rights, social mobility The International System  Anarchy o There is no world government or world police force to provide for the security of states and peoples  Self-help o Every state must provide for its own security o Internal options- building military forces and defenses o External options- forming alliances  Uncertainty o About the capabilities and intentions of others o Produces mistrust (preventative war)  Security Dilemma  Even defensive actions can provoke responses  Can lead arms race, crisis escalation, war  Defensive actions can lead to reduced security o Bottom Lime  Competition and conflict are possible (likely?)  Cooperation can be difficult (very?)  Solutions? o Try to reduce uncertainty, promote tryst and credibility, dampen security dilemmas 9.8.2016 Actors and interests  States and nations  Sub-state groups  Non-state groups  International organizations States, Nations, Nation-States  These are distinct phenomena  Try to be precise and consistent  Unfortunately, these terms are often used interchangeably and carelessly by policymakers, journalists, commentators State  Is a political entity  Has borders, territory  Has sovereignty  Has a government  Is recognized by other states, international organizations, other international actors  The best synonym is “country” NOT ‘Nation’ Nation  Is a group of people with a political identity  Has a political agenda and political aspirations: has (or seeks) some form of self-governance  May already have some political/governmental institutions  Ethnic-based Nations- Based on ethnic (cultural, religious, linguistic) or racial ties (North Korea) Civic-based Nations- Multi-ethnic; based on shared civic/political commitments (United States) Nation-State  A widely used and highly problematic term  Idea developed in 18 and 19 centuries o The idea: Every nation would have its own state o The hope: Conflict would therefore decline  Problem: Hard/impossible to do o Many arbitrary borders; few countries are homogenous o Mixed populations/people; impossible to partition/divide o Remaining minorities; homogeneity is impossible  Problem: Promoting “national self-determination” o Can raise aspirations; can lead to action and then violence o Irredentism, secessionism, forced assimilation, forced expulsion, genocide (don’t call it ‘ethnic cleansing’) Sub-State Groups  Family-based groups: clans and tribes  Social-cultural groups: ethnic groups o Shared history, shared culture (often language, religion), attachment to territory, solidarity, a name  Politically-minded groups: Nations o Ethnic based nation: has or seeks self-governance; “an ethnic group with an attitude”  Fuzzy line between ‘ethnic group’ and ‘nation’ o Political disagreements over use of these terms  Ex) Kurds vs. established states in the region Non-State, International Actors  The good: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) o Interests: humanitarian assistance, human rights, conservation and the environment, health, education, arms control, conflict resolution, good governance  The bad: Criminal organizations o Interests: economic (for-profit)  The ugly: Terrorist organizations o Interests: political, ethno-national, religious  The rich: Multinational Corporations (MNCs) o Interests: economic (for-profit) International Organizations  Terminology o “Inter-governmental” would be more accurate o “Inter-national” isn’t quite right  Regional and international organizations o Territorial scope: regional vs. global o Functional scope: broad vs. narrow o Formality/durability: formal/ongoing vs. informal/temporary o The United Nations and the UN system  Dag Hammarskjöld- “The purpose of the UN is not to get us to heaven but to save us from hell.” Why This Matters  Differentiation, precision and rigor are some of the fundamental of analysis  There are both continuity and change in the 21st century  How do specific developments in specific areas affect the prospects for: o War and peace o Disorder and order o Instability and stability o Conflict and cooperation Power  Definitions o The ability to achieve one’s goals o The ability to get others to do what they otherwise would not do  Power is relational/relative, not absolute o Depends on one’s environment/circumstances o Depends on others  Power is difficult to observe o Difficult to know the intentions/reasons of others o Scholars/analysts therefore focus on what they can observe: tangible sources of power Sources and Types of Power  Geographic  Demographic  Military  Economic  Technological  Political  Soft Power Geography and State Power  A country’s location, size o Neighbors and neighborhoods  External barriers and buffers o Oceans, mountains, harsh terrain, long distances  Internal transportation and communication o Rivers, lakes, plains  Natural resources o Land, water, forests, fisheries, energy, raw materials  Climate and climate change o Suitability for agriculture; vulnerabilities to disease o Vulnerabilities to climate change People and Power  “Demography is destiny”  Population parameters o Overall size, age distribution  Human capital o Education, training, skill levels, organization o Increasingly important in the 21 century  Economic potential o Size an skill of the labor force; a key to economic power  Military potential o Nationalism led to mass armies (18 -19 -20 centuries) o High skill levels are increasingly important Military Power  Inputs o Human: people, training, organization o Financial: budget allocations/expenditures  U.S.- spends more than the next 7 countries combined  U.S./allies/friends- more than 75% of global military spending  China- 12% of global military spending  Russia- 5% of global military spending  Outputs o Forces: Armies, navies, air forces, nuclear weapons, special forces, space systems o Capabilities: Defensive, offensive, power-projection; U.S. ‘command of the commons’  Measurement problems o “bean-counting” is incomplete o What matters: useable, operational capacities Economic Power  Economic inputs o Natural resources, human capital o Financial (public spending, private investments)  Economic outputs o GDP, GDP per capita, accumulated “ inclusive wealth” o Innovativeness and innovations o Potential to convert economic power into military capacities  Economic leverage o Carrots: aid/finance, trade o Sticks: tariffs, quotas, sanctions o Cartels: collaboration to enhance influence  Sustainability o Resource needs; environmental damage/constraints Technology and Power  Inputs o Spending on science, research and development (R&D)  Public/governmental, private/industrial o Higher education: key to long-term capabilities o Size of the science/technology/industrial base o Culture of innovativeness; intellectual property protections  Outputs o Science, engineering applications, innovations  21 century priorities o IT, data analysis, AI o Automation and manufacturing, robotics o Energy, resources, agriculture o Bio-medical, genomics Political Power  Political and diplomatic influence o With allies, friends, neutrals, adversaries o In regional/international organizations  Perceptions o Perceived as honest broker? Interested in win-win outcomes? o Perceived as committed to the common good?  Connections with allies and partners o United States: 60+ military partnerships o Russia: 8 military partnerships o China: 1 military partnership (North Korea) Soft Power  Misperceptions o Often thought of as “anything other than military power” o Often thought of as inherently benign  Attributes o Hard power: coercion, blackmail, sanction, force – ‘push’ o Soft power: attraction, persuasion, co-optation – ‘pull’  Resources o Hard power: lawyers, guns and money o Soft power: values, ideas, legitimacy, policies, culture Power Transitions  Dangers of a great-power transition o Leading power likes the status quo; is worried o Rising power wants to change the status quo; is impatient o Worst-case scenario: all-out, system-wide hegemonic war  Crossover period is especially dangerous o When one power has clear superiority, war is less likely  Preventive war o Leading power acts while it is still ahead  Good news o UK-US example: late 1800s, early 1900s o US-China case: geographic distance, nuclear deterrence


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.