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Chapter 12 Book Notes

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These notes cover the material in our book for Chapter 12
Introduction to Sociology
Richard Caston
Class Notes
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Emily English

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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by rayparkerjr on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 2110 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Richard Caston in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology 101 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.

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Date Created: 09/17/16
Book notes on Chapter 12 Marriage and family Arrangements Pages 279- 301  By 1970’s divorce rates started to go up and fertility started to decline.  Marriage rates today continue to decline but divorce rates started to level off and decline slightly o Despite divorce rates, most Americans believe that marriage is a lifetime relationship that should be ended only on extreme circumstances. Nature of Family Life  2 Natures. Household and a House  Household just includes people sharing the same living space  Family social grp by common residence. Includes adults of both sexes, at least two who maintains sexual relations, and one or more children, owned or adopted. o Definition is too limited, Single Parent families? Functions of Families  *Trobraianders, father had no role in parenthood. It was the mother brother (uncle) of the children responsibility to raise an family* Interesting subject to talk about  Naydar of India- biological fathers are irrevalant usually another man takes his place. Regulating Sexual behaviors  No society random sexual behavior have societies have incest taboo, which forbids intercourse among closely related individuals. o Ancient Egypt, Inca nation and Early Hawaii allowed for brothers and sisters to marry. * Interesting Subject*  30 states prohibit marriage btwn 1 cousins’ fun fact (1) Parenting Reproduction- replacing one members with offspring. (2) Organizing Production and Consumption- must produce it bc as a family we consume things as a unit. (3) Socializing Children- making sure children master the skills they values, and perform the work required. (4) Providing Care and Protection- every person needs someone who care for them, who will help them, and backs us up when conflicts arise. (5) Providing Social Status- being born we acquired ascribed status. Single most important factor on affecting the predictable course of our lives.  Family- a universal institution that’s generally serves the functions 1,2,3,4 and 5, although the way they do it may vary from one society to another. Family Structure  Nuclear Family- most basic form and is made of a married couple and their biological kids.  Polygamous families- nuclear families linked together by multiple marriage bonds, with one central individual married to serval spouses.  Polygynous- when the central person is male and the multiple spouses are female.  Polyandrous- when the central person is female and the multiple souses are males. o Very rare. 1 percent  Extended families- include other relations and generations in addition to the nuclear family so that along with married parents and their off spring there might be the parent parents, siblings of their parents, the siblings’ spouse’s children and in laws.  Patrilineal families- generations are held together thru the males of the families; all members trace their kindship thru father’s line.  Matrilineal families- generation are held together thru the females of the families: all members trace their kindships thru mother’s line. Defining Marriage  Marriage- is an institution found in all societies, socially recognized, legitimized, and supported individuals of opposite sex.  Families of origin- two families that produce two spouses  Family of procreation- family created by spouses’ union. Marriage Rules  Endogamy- limit social categories from within one can choose a marriage partner.  Exogamy- requires someone to marry outside of their culturally defined group  Monogamous- one person is allowed to marry one spouse at a time  Multiple marriages- individual have more than one marriage at a time. 4 Compositions of Household  Patrilocal residence/households- women leaves home and join husband kinfolk so women are outsiders  Matrilocal residence/household- women and children remain home and husbands join wife kinsfolk and husbands are outsiders.  Bilocal and Neolocal Residence/Household o Greater flexibility and wider range of household forms. Might be better economically,  Disadvantage of Neo residence you cant count on help of family. Mate selection  Homogamy- the tendency of like to marry like. o Match maker or a arranged marriage, race,.. etc Age- most Americans marry within their age range. Race- June 12, 1967 interracial marriage became legal.  Hawaii has the highest # nd  Alaska has the 2 highest #  Illinois has highest blcks men marry white women  New Jerseys has the highest black women marry white men Religion  Never a law in the states that banned interreligious marriages.  Catholic Religion has requirments, Jews look down upon it but accept it  Most marriages today involve same religion. However, <interrelig. Marriage are happening. Social Status  Level of education and social economic status tends to be the same when marrying each other.  Men tend to marry women who are slightly below them.  Workforce Bound and College bound o We tend to pick our mates from the pool we most associate with. The Transformation of family  During preindustrial time, all members of the households was responsible for to help in some way so the family can survive economically.  Well adapted for industrialism  Industrialism demands 1. Workers be mobile so workforce is available where new industries emerge 2. Degree of movement btwn social classes. Talented workers go high up in company. Isolated nuclear families are better suited for social mobility required in the industrial society 3. Nuclear families are more open to inheritance and descent thru both sdies of family.  Nuclear families rested on: 1. Child centered family 2. Compassionate marriage- marriage based on love. 3. Increased equality for women 4. Decreased links with extended families 5. Increased geographic mobility 6. Increased social mobility 7. Separation btwn work and leisure 8. Emotional support for each other The Decline of Traditional Families has been steadily decline, Marriage rates been going down  People were getting married younger than today people.  Cohabitation- unmarried couple living together out of wedlock  Has increased a lot in the past 20 years  Fun fact Maine has the highest  Unmarried couple household is two adults with or without a child of age younger than 15 years old. (Opp. Sexes and not related to each other)  No evidence that people who live together will have a stronger marriage than people who don’t. *Use to be able to say the more education a women to have less likely to marry but not now* Childless Couples  Childlessness among married couples have been increasing.. Changes in Household Size has Dropped  Niether (+) or (-)  Until 1940’s it was common to have non-living kin in their house for laborers or boarders whom paid rent.  Rapid decreased in aging parents.  Increasing divorce rates  # of Americans leaving alone has increased  Changes will have important consq for entire structure of society Women in Workforce  100 percent increase from 40 years o WW2 women took jobs o Use of contraceptives  Men, 50 percent increase from 40 years  The change in labor force is probably the single most important recent change in American society Family Violence  Greater danger of being a victim of violence when we are with our family than when we are out in public.  Greater in poor and minority households, but happens in all types of households. Mostly comoon with household of 4 children  Children who are a victim of a abuse are more likely to a abuser as adults than children who did not experience abuse.  Now, steadily declining due to many things o People getting married later and having fewer children o Women are in the workfoce now o Public policies o and Arrest o Abusive programs for women Divorce th  Rose since the early 20 1970’s dropped off in 2010 lowest it’s been since 1969  US have the highest divorce rates.  Education levels are a factor. Divorce Laws  Fault ground- those that access blame for marriage failure.  No fault divorce- neither party establishes blame for marriage failure.  Critics believe this is the reason why divorce rates went up  Family Law Act of 1969- divorce for irreconcilable differences.  Covalent divorce- one of abuse, felony with jail time, or adultery. Child custody Laws  View that most children would benefit from living with their mother following divorce starting to decline.  Joint custody- allows both parents equal rights in making decisions regarding the child’s upbringing.  Exclusive/Sole custody child must prove that joint custody is not the best interest of the child. Child lives almost always with mother, but other parent could get visitation rights. Remarriage and Step families/Blended families  “Manatre” mean stepmother and “ curel and harsh mother”  Stepmother in English wicked usually comes after it (lol)  Stepchild- is the orphan  High divorce rates lead to high remarriage rates. Family Diversity  There’s a growing single family populations and with that you have single parents raising children.


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