Anthropology 2200 All Slides
Anthropology 2200 All Slides 2200
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Introduction to Anthropology Anthropology 2200 Whatis anthropology? AnthropologySubfields Archaeology Linguistic Cultural Physical Anthropology Anthropology uses a holistic and biocultural approach. CulturalAnthropology Culture – Cultural relativism & ethnocentrism Archaeology Linguistic Anthropology PhysicalAnthropology ThreeFundamentalQuestions 1. Who are we as a species? 2. What does it mean to be human? 3. Where did we come from? Whatdophysical anthropologists study? • Molecular structure • Bones and teeth • Blood types • Breathing capacity/lung volume • Genetics • Diseases • Nutrition • Reproduction • Growth, development, senescence • Nonhuman primates • Brain biology • Humanevolution Answering fundamental questions requires interdisciplinary approach. PhysicalAnthropologySubfields • Six primary subfields • Each subfield has own specializations TheSixStepstoHumanness Six key characteristics distinguish humans from other organisms. Bipedalism Humans are the only obligate bipeds. Non-honing Chewing Complex Material Culture &Tool Use Other animals have culture and use tools, but humans require it for survival. Cooperative Hunting Speech Dependence onDomesticated Food Population Genetics & Forcesof Evolution PopulationGenetics Study of changes in genetic material in a population, specifically allele frequencies. PopulationGenetics Allele frequency – number of times an allele occurs in a population # alleles of intX 100 # total alleles PopulationGenetics Deme – reproductive population Gene pool – all genetic material in a population So how do we know ifevolution is occurring? The Hardy-Weinberg Law of Equilibrium Allele frequencies in a population remain constant if certain conditions are met: 1. No natural selection 2. No gene flow 3. No mutation 4. Large population 5. Random Mating These foif an allele’s frequency is changing over generations.n tell us TheHardy-Weinberg Law of Equilibrium Two variables: p = frequency of dominant allele q = frequency of recessive allele p + q = 1 TheHardy-Weinberg Law of Equilibrium p + 2pq + q = 1 2 TheHardy-Weinberg Law of Equilibrium • Determine observe allele frequency Step 1 Step 2 • Calculate expected genotypes frequency • Calculate actual genotypes frequency Step 3 • Compare expected genotype frequency to Step 4 actual genotype frequencies If Step 2 and Step 3 produce If Step 2 and Step 3 produce identical answers à different answe s Allele not evolving in this Allele is evolving population Whatdrivesallelefrequencies tochange? Mutation Four Genetic Forces of Natural Drift Selection Evolution Gene Flow Mutation Mutations generate new alleles Mutations occur at the individuallevel Other three forces work at the population level NaturalSelection Based on fitness Fitness – reproductive success DirectionalSelection StabilizingSelection DisruptiveSelection GeneFlow/Admixture • Transfer of genes between populations. • Decreases inter-population variation because size of gene pool increases GeneticDrift Random change in allele frequency over time Probability of genetic drift increases as population size decreases Typesof Genetic Drift BottleneckEffect – drastic population size reduction Original Population New Population Random event causing drastic reduction Typesof Genetic Drift Founder Effect– small subset of original population forms new population GeneralBiologyReview Anthropology 2200 Whatisscience? TheScientificMethod Observations Hypothesis Predictions New or revised hypothesis Test Hypothesis Supported Hypothesis Rejected AdditionalTests Scientific Jargon Hypothesis – prediction and possible explanation based on prior experience Theory – systemic of scientific principle used to explain phenomenon Law – statement of fact that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions are present Taxonomy BinomialNomenclature Scientific names for organisms utilize genus and species from taxonomic classification Pan paniscus Formatting rules: • Genus is always capitalized • Species is never capitalized • Both are italicized • Underline if handwriting TheModernSynthesis Anthropology 2200 Darwin’sBiggest Criticism Natural selection requires variation in a population. Where does this variation come from? Mutations • Mutation– heritable changes in structure or amount of genetic material • The only source of new genetic variation DNA & Chromosomes TheDiscoveryofDNA • DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid • 1952 – Alfred Hershey & Martha Chase • 1953 – JamesWatson& Francis Crick – Rosalind Franklin TheStructureofDNA • Double-helix • Units called nucleotides • Nucleotide components: – Sugar Phosphate – Phosphate group – Nitrogenous base Nitrogenous Sugar base TheStructureofDNA • Sides – sugar and phosphate • Middle – nitrogenous bases • Strand held together by hydrogen bonds • Hydrogen bonds can only form between certain bases – DNA Base-Pairing Rule DNAReplication DNA strands are complementary ProteinSynthesis • Gene – segment of DNA coding for a protein • Protein – complex chemicals composing tissues and regulating functions • Composed of amino acids • Types – Structural – Regularly ProteinSynthesis ProteinSynthesis • Transcription – make mRNA copy of gene – Occurs in nucleus – DNAvs. RNA • RNA: – Single stranded – Uracil instead of thymine – Sugar isribose instead of deoxyribose ProteinSynthesis • Translation – makes protein using mRNA – Occurs in ribosomesin cytoplasm – Uses codons to read mRNA – Codons specify amino acids DNAMutations • Point Mutations • Frameshift Mutations – Synonymous – Deletion – Non-synonymous – Insertion DNAMutations • Transposable elemen– tgenes copy themselves to entirely different locations on the DNA strand – Microsatellites/transposons Chromosomes • Genes located on chromosomes • Two copies of every chromosoà etwo copies of every gene – Homologous chromosomes– contains same genes • Example: eye color • Homologous genes do not have to be identical Chromosomes • Alleles –different version of the same gene – Example:eye color alleles can be blue, green, or brown • An individual can have homozygous or heterozygous alleles • Alleles on homologous chromosomes are at the same locus Camels: 70 Chromosomes Algae: 148 • Number of chromosomes varies by organism • Types Orangutans: 48 – Autosomal – Sex • Karyotypes – organized chromosome profile Petunias: 14 Chromosomes form for two processes: Mitosis Meiosis Mitosis • DNA replication followed by cell division • Used for growth and cell replacement Meiosis • DNA replication and crossing over/recombination followed by two cell divisions • Used to produce gametes Chromosomal Mutations • Deletion or duplication of fragments or entire chromosomes – Monosomy disorders – deletion of single chromosome – Trisomy disorders – duplication of single chromosome Mutations • Mutations can be: – Spontaneous – Induced • Mutations insignificant unless they affect fitness • Only mutations affecting gametes pass to future generations Howaregametes inherited? Gregor Mendel - 1865 Before Mendel + = Blended inheritance Mendel’s First Experiment The experiment The results LawofDominance • Mendel realized “factors” were being passed from parent to offspring and that factors could have multiple forms. – Factors– genes – Multiple forms- alleles LawofDominance • Some alleles are dominant to other alleles • Law of Dominance – dominant alleles override recessive alleles PunnettSquares • Alleles represented by letters – Dominant alleles – capital letter – Recessive alleles– lowercase letter Tall pea plants are dominant to short pea plants Tall = T Short = t PunnettSquares • Genotype – alleles an organism has – homozygous or heterozygous • Phenotype – physical expression of alleles TaShort pea plant t or Tt PunnettSquares • Outcome probabilities for next generation t t T Tt Tt Tt tt t tt tt LawofSegregation • Law of Segregation –each parents only passes one of each alleles to their offspring • Alleles segregate during meiosis LawofIndependent Assortment • Law of IndependentAssortment – alleles segregate independency Exceptions to the rules… Multiple Alleles • Some genes have more than two alleles • Alleles ranked in dominance hierarchy Co-Dominance • More than one dominant allele • Heterozygotes express both phenotypes Incomplete Dominance • One allele is incompletely dominant • Heterozygotes havecombined phenotype PolygenicInheritance • Trait determined by 2+ genes • Nearly unlimited phenotypic possibilities • Continuous variation • Environment plays large role in expression Pleiotropy • Single gene influences more than one phenotypic trait Epigenetics • Changes gene expression but does not change DNA sequence • Activates or silences genes, often permanent • Changes can be heritable LinkageDisequilibrium • Some genes can be inherited together • Haplotype – genes located close together on a chromosome TheModernSynthesis Evolution by Natural Selection Genes & Laws of Mutations Inheritance Speciation & Cladistics Anthropology 2200 Speciation Morphological Species Concept vs. Biological Species Concept Speciation Speciation occurs via anagenesis or cladogenesis Speciation by cladogenesis requires reproductive isolation Reproductive isolation can be pre-zygoticor post-zygotic Pre-ZygoticIsolating Mechanisms Prevents formation of visible zygotes Geographic/Spatial Isolation Temporal Isolation Rana aurora Rana boylii Breeding season: January – early MarchBreeding season: late March - May Behavioral Isolation Mechanical Isolation Gametic Isolation Post-ZygoticIsolation Mechanisms Prevent hybrids from passing on their genes HybridInviability HybridSterility Typesof Speciation AllopatricSpeciation Peripatric Speciation Cormorant Flightless Cormorant Parapatric Speciation -Adjacentpopulation evolveindependently Sympatric Speciation Polymorphismleadsto reproductive isolation Polymorphism-morethan 2 phenotypes Tempo of Speciation Phyletic Gradualism Punctuated Equilibrium Speciationhasresultedin enormousbiodiversity… Cladistics Biologists map biodiversity using cladograms (AKA phylogenetic trees) Cladistics • Often cannot witness speciation • Cladograms start with characteristics, then work backward to figure out speciation events • Based on physical and/or genetic traits Cladistics Homologies – features shared due to common ancestor When two or more different features are compared, they can be ranked as ancestralor derived Cladistics Vestigial Featur –esomologous features that no longer function; typically small and rudimentary Cladistics Homoplasies – shared feature due to independent functional adaptation, not common ancestry. Ex. Fish and wale Cladistics Homologies are analyzed to make phylogenetic trees Cladograms document where new features arise Introduction to Osteology Anthropology 2200 Whydowecareaboutbones? • Living, dynamic tissue that responds to the environment – Wolff’s Law • Resistant to most decay Whatcanbones tellus? Sex Age Stature Locomotion Brain information Occupation Health Ancestry Social status BoneFunctions Part of musculoskeletal system • Protects and supports soft tissues • Anchors muscles • Produces movement • Makes blood cells • Stores fat and calcium BoneGrowth • Begins in utero – Skeleton mostly cartilage at birth • Bones have 2-3 centers of growth • Adults – 206 bones • Bones connected by joints Movable Slightly Movable Immovable Skull Thorax Arm & Shoulder Pelvis Leg Skull/Cranial Bones • 22 bones • Fused together by sutures (except mandible) • Function – protect the brain Teeth • 32 adult teeth • Most common skeletal remains • Function – break down food • Indicative of: – Food consumer – Body size – Behavior – Sexual dimorphism – Health and nutrition Sternum Thorax • 50 bones – Ribs (12/side) – Sternum (2) – Vertebral column (12) • Functions – protect organs and maintain upright posture Ribs Vertebral Column Xiphoid Process Arm&Shoulder • 32 bones/side – 26 bones/hand • Function – wide range of motion Pelvis • 3 fused bones Ilium – Ilium – Ischium – Pubis • Function – weight bearing – Females: child bearing Ischium Pubis Leg • 31 bones/side – 27 bones/foot • Function – locomotion and weight distribution Skeletal Variation Age Changes Growth vs. degeneration Skeletal Variation Sex Differences Pelvic features and robusticity Skeletal Variation Genetic Abnormalities Extra bones and teeth Altered bone growth Ex: Achondroplasia Skeletal Variation Trauma & Disease Comparative ApeAnatomy Comparative ApeAnatomy Differences • Skull shape • Arm length • Thorax shape • Pelvis Shape • Leg angle Structural differences are due to function ModernHumanVariation Anthropology 2200 Howdohumansvary? Adaptations • Advantageous traits leading to greater reproductive success • Serve to maintainhomeostasis • Four types GeneticAdaptations DevelopmentalAdaptations PhysiologicalAdaptations AKA Acclimatization Cultural/Behavioral Adaptations Humansvarybased onadaptations… Growth & Development Climate Adaptations High Altitude Adaptations Nutritional Adaptations Workload Adaptations Disease Resistance Race Growth&Development • Growth– increase in size • Development –progression from immaturity to maturity • Combination of genetics and environment Growth&Development The Human Growth Cycle • Pre-natal stage – pregnancy, ends at birth • Sensitive to environmental stress • Predictive of adult health – Fetal origins of adult disease (FOAD) – AKA Barker Hypothesis Growth&Development The Human Growth Cycle • Post-natal stage – birth through adolescence • Each period has different growth velocities – Infancy – Childhood – Juvenility – Adolescence Growth&Development The Human Growth Cycle • Adult stage – reproductive period through death • Three requirements: – Completion of sexual maturity – Reach full height – Growth plate fusion Variation in Growth & Development Age at weaning Variation in Growth & Development Age at menarche Variation in Growth & Development Adult height Variation in Growth & Development Brain growth does not vary Brain growth completed by M1 eruption (~6 years) Climate Adaptations Heat Stress & Thermoregulation -Sweating -Vasodilation -7-14 days for acclimatization Climate Adaptations Cold Stress & Thermoregulation -Shivering -Vasoconstrictions - Behavioral / Cultural adaptation Climate Adaptations Body Proportions & Climate • Bergmann’s Rule – heat-adapted mammals have thinner cores than cold-adapted mammals Climate Adaptations Body Proportions & Climate • Allen’s Rule – heat-adapted mammals have longer, thinner limbs than cold-adapted mammals HighAltitudeAdaptations Barrel-shaped chests developmental adaptation HighAltitudeAdaptations Acclimatization to hypoxia NutritionalAdaptations Nutritional needs met with macro- and micronutrients • Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) • Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) Nutritional Adaptations • Many populations are undernourished • Major consequences – Immunosuppression- need to eat – Staned growth - end up muchmuchshorter – Shortened lifespan Nutritional Major consequences: Adaptations Increased obesity Increased Over-nutrition increasing hypercholesterolemia Increased type 2 diabetes Whyarehumans pre-disposedtogainweight? Workload Adaptations W orkload & Reproduction • Excessive workload can hinder female reproduction (includes exercise!) • Implications: – Societies withhigh female workloads will have lower birth rates – Societies with highest fitness will not require excessive female labor Workload Adaptations Skeletal Remodeling • Wolff’s Law – bone mass produced where needed, reduced where not needed, like tennis player’s right hand Disease Resistance &Susceptibility • Often ancestry-related • population membership of geographical • Ancestry leaves signatures on descendant DNA Disease Resistance &Susceptibility BRCA Gene – Jewish Women Disease Resistance &Susceptibility Tay-Sachs Disease – Ashkenazi Jewish, French Canadian, Louisiana Cajun, Irish American Disease Resistance &Susceptibility HIV • CD4 & CCR5 mutationsà HIV immunity Disease Resistance &Susceptibility Malaria Resistance – genetic adaptations and various diseases in different regions provide selective resistance to malaria • Diseases collectively called hemoglobinopathies • Stabilizing selection/balanced polymorphism/fitness trade-off Disease Resistance &Susceptibility Malaria • Transmitted by mosquitoes • Reproduces in RBCs Disease Resistance &Susceptibility Duffy Null Allele • Malarial parasite enters RBCs by activating the Duffy antigen • Some individuals born without Duffy antigen Disease Resistance &Susceptibility Sickle-Cell Anemia • Genotypes: – AA – normal, nosickle-cell-anemia – AS – carrier for sickle-cell anemia Disease Resistance &Susceptibility • Genotype AS individuals rarely get malaria • 20-30% of equatorial Africans are sickle-cell heterozygotes Disease Resistance &Susceptibility Thalassemia • Europe, Asia, Pacific • Hemoglobin clumps and destroys RBCs • Heterozygotes protected from malaria Disease Resistance &Susceptibility Enzyme G6PD Deficiency • G6PD enzyme required to breakdown certain foods (favabeans) • Heterozygotes make enough G6PD to survive and are resistant to malaria Race TheHistoryofRace TheHistoryofRace TheHistoryofRace 1775 – Blumenbach • Racial taxonomy based on skin color and physical featuresof the skull • Race was static TheHistoryofRace • Additional anthropometric studies done to justify oppression • Measured: – Facial angle – Cranial index – Shin bone length – Blood type DebunkingRace • Franz Boas challenged idea that race is static • Measured cephalic index • Cephalic index change over generations – race is invalid “The existence of any pure race with special endowments is a myth, as is the belief that there are races all of whose members are foredoomed to eFranz Boaseriority.” TheRealityofRace Skin color variation is continuous, not discrete TheRealityofRace Skin color exhibitsclinal variation Whatgenerates skincolorvariation? • Amount of melanin and keratin in skin • Melanin– pigment found in skin of almost all animals • Melanocytes activated by UV radiation Whydoesskincolorvariationexist? Whydoesskincolorvariationexist? Selection for melanin concentrations is a balancing act… Vitamin D Folate Skin Color & VitaminD • UV radiation required for vitamin D synthesis • Without vitamin D, bones fail to mineralize properly (rickets) • Melanin inhibits vitamin D synthesis Skin Color & Folate • UV radiation destroys folate • Folate essential for: DNA synthesis and repair RBC production Neural tube formation (fetal development) • Melanin protects folate (natural SPF) Genes &SkinColor • Polygenic trait(4-6 genwith continuous variation • Each gene has two allelesand is co-dominant • Influenced by smaller loci Skin color is approximately 70% genetic and 30% environmental. DNA&SkinColor • Racial traits are non-concordant • 85% of all genetic variation can be found within any local population • 95% of all genetic variation can be found on a single continent • 5% of DNA variation is due to ancestry Charles Darwin& NaturalSelection Anthropology 2200 TheWorldBeforeDarwin • Static Earth • ~6000 years old • Aristotle’s Great Chain of Being Darwin’sVoyage Darwin’sInfluences Geology • James Hutton – Uniformitarianism • Charles Lyell Primary Contribution: Evidence that the Earth is millions of years old Darwin’sInfluences Paleontology • Robert Hooke • Georges Cuvier – Fossils remains of past – Reconstructed fossils life – Catastrophism Primary Contribution: Fossils are history of past life Darwin’sInfluences Taxonomy • Carolus Linnaeus Primary Contribution: Classification of plants and animals Darwin’sInfluences Demography • Thomas Malthus Point of Crisis Primary Contribution: Struggle for existence advantage characteristics Darwin’sInfluences • Evolutionary Biology – Erasmus Darwin – Jean Baptiste Lamarck • Tendency toward perfection • Use and disuse à modification • Inheritance of acquired characteristics Primary Contribution: Living organisms evolved from past The TheoryofEvolution byNatural Selection • Published in 1859 • Alfred RusselWallace The TheoryofEvolution byNatural Selection • Variation is real • Variation is inherited • Offspring produced > survive to reproduce • Struggle for existence • Beneficial Variatio- increased reproduction • Beneficial Variatio- increased frequency The TheoryofEvolution byNatural Selection • Beneficial variations à adaptation – Characteristics enhancing an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce Results of Natural Selection • Descent with modification • Speciation– formation of new species • Species– organisms that reproduce together and have reproduce viable offspring Results of Natural Selection • Adaptive radiation – one species leads to multiple new species Darwin’sCritics • Backlash from scientific community – No mechanisms for generating or inheriting variation Introduction to Primates Anthropology 2200 Whatisaprimate? Whatisaprimate? Three Prominent Tendencies Arboreal Adaptation Dietary Plasticity(eat a lots of things) Parental ArborealAdaptations Versatile Skeletal Structure Opposable pollexes Opposable halluxes (except humans) Greater range of motion in backbone Orthograde posture(except like horse, dog) ArborealAdaptations Enhanced Sense of Touch Dermal ridges ArborealAdaptations Enhanced Vision Forward -facing eyes Color vision Post-orbital bar bear lemur chimpanzee no post-orbital bar post-orbital bar post-orbital bar with closure ArborealAdaptations Reduced reliance on smell and hearing Loss of rhinarium Reduced snout size DietaryPlasticity Primates have high dietary plasticity DietaryPlasticity Four types of teeth (Ancestral trait) • Incisors • Canines • Pre-molars • Molars DietaryPlasticity Reduced number of teeth (derived trait) Dental formula – number of each tooth type per quadrant Humans: 220.127.116.11 DietaryPlasticity Dental Specializations • Diet: – Frugivory – Folivory – Insectivory – Gumnivory • Enamel tends to be thicker in primates that eat tough, hard foods DietaryPlasticity Molar Type Bilophodont Molars -Old World Monkeys Y-5Molars -Apes DietaryPlasticity Tooth Comb • Only found in some strepsirrhines DietaryPlasticity Canine Honing Complex All monkeys and apes (except humans) ParentalInvestment • Few offspring • Prolonged care • Offspring are smart, social-y complex, and long-lived Whystudyprimates? Primate are studied as human models HumanEvolution First models of human evolution were hunter-gatherer societies HumanEvolution When first human ancestor fossils discovered, model shifted to nonhuman primates Anatomy&Morphology Body proportions Sexual dimorphism Terrestrial adaptations Sociality Sociality Social binding essential to normal development Behavior &Cognition “Since man is a primate and developed from somewhere along the Old W orld simian stock, his social behavior, too, must have evolved from within the range of social variations possible for this mammalian group.” Schultz 1961 TheBrain Brain growth cessation: Humans • Baboons ~3 years old • Increased size • Chimpanzees ~5 years old • Increased complexity • Humans ~6 years old • Faster evolution Genetics Chimpanzee genome completion (2005) • 98.7% identical to humans • Ancestral inbreeding Bonobo genome completion (2012) 99.6% identical to chimpanzees 98.7% identical to humans Reproduction& Sexual Behavior Estrous cycling • Baboons – 34 days – 7 menstruation • Chimpanzees– 36 days – 3 menstruation Age at reproduction • Chimpanzees– 13.1 years Gestation • Chimpanzees– 9 months Reproduction & Sexual Behavior Parturition assistance? Disease Neuroscience and biomedical testing • Alzheimer’s disease • Immunodeficiency • Amnesia • Malaria • Cancer • Multiple sclerosis • Ebola • Obesity • Epilepsy • Organ transplants • Hepatitis • Parasitic infection • Herpes • Parkinson’s disease • HIV/AIDS • Tuberculosis PrimateEvolution Anthropology 2200 TheLivingPrimates Mesozoic – 248-65 MYA Cenozoic – 65 MYA-present • Paleocene (6-55 MYA) – Proprimates • Eocene (55-36 MYA)– Euprimates • Oligocene (36-24 MYA) – Anthropoids • Miocene (23-5 MYA) – Planet of the Apes FirstEutherian Mammal • 160 MYA • Found in China • Not arboreal • Lateral-facing eyes • Large snouts with whiskers • Teeth with sharp cus (pnectivor) • Small brains • Small body size • Solitary Whydidprimatesevolve? Arboreal Hypothesis Whydidprimatesevolve? Visual Predation Hypothesis Whydidprimatesevolve? Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis Proprimates Paleocene (6-55 MYA) Relatively cool period Proprimates The Plesiadapiformes • Prognathic snout • Lateral orbits • No post-orbital bar • Whiskers • Reliance on smell • Small brain • Claws • Non-opposable digits • Solitary • Flat, rounded molars Proprimates Carpolestes (a plesiadapiform) • Likely ancestor toeuprimates (transitional species) • Characteristics: – Opposable pollex and hallux – One nail – Long, grasping fingers Proprimates Plesiadapiformes went extinct ~56 MYA Euprimates Eocene (55-36 MYA) Much warmer Euprimates Characteristics: • Sexual dimorphism • Long opposable digits • Non-specialized teeth • Increasing brain size • Nails • Post-orbital bar Euprimates Behavioral Trends: • Complex social organization • Increased reliance on vision and manipulative abilities Euprimates Adapids • North America • Diurnal • Reduced prognathism • Slightly larger brain • More forward facing eyes • Dental formula: 18.104.22.168 • Molars with shearing crests • Some species had fused mandible • Possibly lemur ancestor Euprimates Omomyids • North America • Nocturnal • Partial potorbital closure • Large, projecting incisors • Small canines • Decreased prognathism • Possibly tarsier ancestor AnthropoidOrigins Oligocene (36-24 MYA) Warm, wet, tropical conditions AnthropoidOrigins Aegyptopithecus • First anthropoid? • 13-18lbs • Sagittal crest • Arboreal quadruped • Dental formula: 22.214.171.124 AnthropoidOrigins The traditional view is that prosimians evolved first, and then anthropoids evolved much later from an advanced prosimian Could anthropoids beas old as strepsirrhines? Eosimias • China • ~45 MYA • Ankle bones suggest Eosimias moved in trees like a monkey Could anthropoids beas old as strepsirrhines? Archicebus achilles • Discovered August 2013 • China • 55 MYA (oldest primate) • 2.8” long, 1 oz • Diet: insects, fruit • Diurnal • Possible link between tarsiersand anthropoids Platyrrhine Origins Platyrrhines descended from a catarrhineancestor Platyrrhine Origins Platyrrhines descended from group of catarrhines called parapithecids • Dental formula: 126.96.36.199 Evolved near end of Oligocene/beginning of Miocene Platyrrhine Origins The First Platyrrhine – Branisella (26 MYA) Miocene–PlanetoftheApes At least 10 genera and 15 species. Miocene–PlanetoftheApes Miocene (23-5 MYA) Very warm, tropical Miocene–Planetofthe Apes Proconsulids • 27-17 MYA • Dental formula: 188.8.131.52 • Broad, flat incisors • Y-5 molars • Arboreal quadrupeds Miocene–PlanetoftheApes Proconsulids moved more like monkeys than extant apes. Often called the “dental apes.” proconsulid gibbon Miocene–PlanetoftheApes Proconsulid Examples • Proconsul micropithecus – Size of small monkey • Proconsulmajor – Size of extant male chimpanzee(~110lbs) Miocene–PlanetoftheApes Out of Africa • Apes appear in Europe & Asia ~17 MYA Miocene–PlanetoftheApes Apes in Asia • Sivapithecus(12-8 MYA) • Khoratopitehcus (9-6 MYA) • Possible orangutan ancestors Apes in Asia • Gigantopithecus(8-0.5 MYA) – 10 feet tall, 600lbs Miocene–PlanetoftheApes Apes in Europe • Dryopithecus – 13 MYA – Size of small chimpanzee – Suspensory locomotion – Large canines – Large brain Miocene–PlanetoftheApes Apes in Europe • Oreopithecus – 8-7 MYA – Tuscany – ~70lbs – Small brain Miocene–PlanetoftheApes What about the OWM? • Remained within Africa • Victoriapithecids – Theropithecus oswaldi • Females ~175lbs • Males with very large canines TheEndoftheMiocene India & Asia collide to form Himalayan and East African Mountains TheEndoftheMiocene Climate becomes cooler and dryer TheEndoftheMiocene Most Asian apes go extinct • Khoratopithecus moves south, evolves into extant orangutans Most European apes go extinct • Some migrate south, back into Africa • Adapt to either woodlands or grasslands TheEndoftheMiocene OWM undergo adaptive radiation and fill open niches PrimateTaxonomy Anthropology 2200 PrimateTaxonomy Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates – Two Suborders: • Haplorhini • Strepsirhini Over 200 species and 600 subspecies! Primates Strepsirhini Haplorhini Lemuriformes Tarsiiformes Anthropoidea Lorisoidea Lemuroidea Platyrrhini Catarrhini Ceboidea Cercopithecoidea Hominoidea Cebidae Atelidae Colobinae Cercopithecinae Hylobatidae Hominidae Ponginae Gorillinae Homininae Panini Hominini NonhumanPrimateDistribution Strepsirhines • Most primitive primates (prosimians) • Africa, Asia, Madagascar (Old World) • Rely on smell more than other primates – Rhinarium – Prognathism Strepsirhines • Retain claw on 2 digit of feet – Grooming claw • Tooth comb • Most are nocturnal – Tapetumlucidum • d Strepsirhines • Limited orbital convergence • Post-orbital bar • Unfused mandible and frontal bones Lorises&Pottos • AKA bush babies • Africa and SE Asia • Slow and deliberate • Nocturnal Galagos • Africa • Move rapidly • Nocturnal Lemurs • Madagascar • Adaptive radiation from single ancestor ~50 MYA • 21% of all primate genera TheAye-Aye TheAye-Aye • Continuously growing incisors • No toothcomb • Secondarily evolved claws • Percussive foraging – Elongated middle digit – Large dish-like ears – Nocturnal – Large brain Haplorhines Divided into tarsiers and anthropoids(monkeys and apes) Tarsiers Ancestral (strepsirhfeatures: Unfused mandible and frontal bones Locomotive style Grooming claw Nocturnal Tarsiers Derived (haplorhinfeatures: No rhinarium No tapetum lucidum No tooth comb Partial post-orbital closure Tarsiers Unique features: Grooming claw on digit 2 and 3 Only entire faunivorous primate True Facts About Tarsiers Anthropoids • Large brain • Post-orbital closure • Convergent eyes • Sexual dimorphism • Color vision • Fewer teeth • Diurnal • Less prognathic Anthropoids Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys) • Round nostrils, wide nasal septum Catarrhines (Old World Monkeys & Apes) • Nostrils point downward, narrow nasal septum Platyrrhines • Central and South America (new world) • Dental formula: 184.108.40.206 • Strictly arboreal • Wide dietary ranges Platyrrhines Callitrichines “Beautiful hair” Marmosets Tamarins Goeldi’s monkey Platyrrhines Platyrrhines Cebus – capuchin monkeys Platyrrhines Atelids • Largest NWMs • Prehensile tails • Spider monkeys • Woolly monkeys • Howler monkeys • Muriquis Platyrrhines Pithecids • Titis • Sakis • Uakaris Catarrhines–OldWorld Monkeys • Africa & Asia (old world) • Arboreal and terrestrial species • Bilophodont molars • Ischial callosities (sitting pads) • Tails (non-prehensil) • Two families Catarrhines–OldWorld Monkeys Cercopithecines • Frugivorous – Cheek-pouch monkeys • Arboreal – long tails • Terrestrial short tails Catarrhines–OldWorld Monkeys Colobines • Folivorous – Large, multi-chambered stomach • Arboreal – long tails • No terrestrial species • Wide array of coloration Catarrhines-Hominoids lesser apes great apes Catarrhines-Hominoids • Large brain • No tail • Longer forelimbs than hindlimbs • Long grasping fingers Catarrhines-Hominoids Lesser Apes • Gibbons and siamangs • Frugivorous Catarrhines-Hominoids Great Apes Larger body size Terrestrials and arboreal PrimateSocioecology &Behavior EncephalizationQuotient(EQ) • Ratio of brain mass to body size • Rough indicator of intelligence • Mean EQ for mammals is 1 • Most primates have EQ>1 LifeSpan Primates are very long- lived mammals. Lemurs– 27 years Macaques – 29 years Gibbons – 30 years Chimps – 44 years Humans – 70+ years Whybesocial? Whybesocial? Food Acquisition Bateman’s/Triver’s Principle: Female reproductive success limited by access to food. Male reproductive success limited by access to femlaes Whybesocial? Predation Protection Whybesocial? Social organization also influenced by: Activity pattern (diurnal vs. nocturnal) Body size Typesof Social Groupings One-male, multi-female (polygyny) Some langurs, some howler monkeys, some OWM, and Typesof Social Groupings One-female, multi-male (polyandry) Males contributes to raising offspring (twins!) Typesof Social Groupings Multi-male, multi-female Many are fission/fusion Some NWM, many OWM, chimpanzees, bonobos Typesof Social Groupings All Male Typesof Social Groupings One male, one female (monogamy/pair bonding) Males invest in parental care Gibbons, owl monkeys, some stresirrhiens Typesof Social Groupings Solitary Mostly interact for sexual activity Orangutans, most strepsirrhines DominanceHierarchies • Found in some primate species • Males and females • Males usually dominant over females • Dominance has both costs and benefits Sexual Selection • Natural selection increases traits that improve reproductive success • Typically operates in males because reproduction based on female choice • Drives sexual dimorphism Sexual Selection Intersexual Selection Between opposite sexes Results in enhanced features in one sex. Why? Sexual Selection Intrasexualselection Between same sex Competition for mates Results in increased body size for competitive sex Reproductive Strategies May occur before, during, or after copulation Pre-CopulatoryReproductive Strategies Philopatry Remaining with birth group Mostly female philopatry Incest avoidance Pre-CopulatoryReproductive Strategies Sexual Swellings Female physically signal ovulation and estrus Usually in multi-male group Copulatory & Gestation Reproductive Strategies Sperm Competition Results in enlarged testes Most common in multi-male group Copulatory & GestationReproductive Strategies Promiscuity Most common in multi-male groups Confuses paternity Copulatory & GestationReproductive Strategies Faking Estrus Some females can fake estrus (including sexual swellings Most common during times of instability Post-Copulatory Reproductive Strategies Infanticide Post-Copulatory Reproductive Strategies Infanticide conditions: Male is not father Female mates with infanticide male Shortens interbirth interval Post-Copulatory Reproductive Strategies Infanticide defenses: Promiscuity Faking estrus Aggressive defense Post-Copulatory Reproductive Strategies Reproductive Inhibition • Lactational amenorrhea Post-Copulatory Reproductive Strategies Birth Capacity Post-Copulatory Reproductive Strategies Allomothering Most common in group with female philopatry Post-Copulatory Reproductive Strategies Female Cooperation • In groups with male philopatr, females sometimes cooperate when they have infants. Post-Copulatory Reproductive Strategies Friendships Olive baboons Males are not always father of offspring Based on personality Social Development To develop normally , primates need: Parental bond Physical contact Social learning Social Development Without normal social development, primates may develop aberrant behaviors. • Self-embracing • Self-injury • Eating disorders • Sexual disorders • Stereotypies • Extreme fearfulness • Extreme aggression • Rejection of offspring Cooperation Grooming Cooperation Food Sharing Cooperation Care Giving Cooperation Warning Calls Cooperation Hunting Cooperation Patrolling & “Warfare” Aggression • Mostly non-contact aggression • Compete for mates and territory Communication Unintentional Communication Increased odor, smell Piloerection, hair stands Sexual signals Communication Intentional Communication Facial expression Communication Intentional Communication Grooming Displacement Communication Intentional Communication • Vocalizations – Food association – Offspring association – Warning calls – Grunts and threat grunts – Territory – Mate location – Whispering? Communication Intentional Communication • Sign Language • Lexigrams Culture Learned behavior That is socially Transmitted Often involves Tool use Culture Food Washing Japanese macaques Culture Nut Cracking Chimpanzees, capuchines Culture Termite Fishing Chimpanzees, orangutans Culture Water Play & Swimming Multiple species Culture Hot Springs Japanese macaques Culture Playing with Snowballs Japanese macaques Culture Making Tools Chimpanzees, orangutans, gorillas, capuchins, macaques Culture Medicine – Insect Repellant Capuchins Culture Medicine – Geophagy Chimpanzees, colobus monkeys, howler monkeys, muriquis Culture Medicine – Plants for Parasitic Infections Chimpanzees, muriquis Cognition Deception Fake warning calls Surreptitious mating Cognition Theory of Mind Great apes Cognition Problem Solving Cognition Imitation & Emulation Teaching? Cognition Morality PrimateLocomotion Anthropology 2200 IntermembralIndex Method for estimating primary locomotor strategy IntermembralIndex = (humerus length + radius length) / (femur length + tibia length) * 100 ArborealLocomotion Vertical Clinging & Leaping Short forelimbs, longhindlimbs IntermembralIndex ~ 70 Used by strepsirrhines and tarsiers Arboreal Quadrupedalism Most common locomotor strategy Short limbs of equal length and long tails IntermembralIndex ~ 80-100 Suspensory Locomotion Long forelimbs, short hindlimbs Intermembral Index ~ 110-130 Used by many primates Brachiation Type of suspensory behavior Intermembral Index~ 130 Terrestrial Quadrupedalism Long limbs of equal length IntermembralIndex~ 80-100 Knuckle -Walking Type of terrestrial quadrupedalism Forelimbs longer thahindlimbs IntermembralIndex~110 Used by great apes Bipedalism Shorter forelimbs thanhindlimbs IntermembralIndex~70 Humans and birds are the only obligate bipeds. Other primates are facultative bipeds Major Events in HumanEvolution Anthropology 2200 Climate Changes • 6 MYA – forests turned to savannas • Stable climate for next 4 million years • Fluctuating climate for last 2 million years Climates changes drive evolutionary changes Bipedalism – First modern human adaptation – Longer legs than arms • Lower intermembralindex Bipedalism • Degree of commitment – Facultative – Habitual – Obligate Bipedalism Foramen magnum Bipedalism S-shaped spine (humans) C-shaped spine (primates) Bipedalism Bowl-shaped pelvis Pan troglodytes Bipedalism Femoral Angle Femuris medially angled (Valgus angle) Bipedalism Foot morphology Non-opposable hallux Bipedalism Foot morphology Talus is platfor-like Calcaneus is robust Chimpanzees (and all other primates) – short halluxes Human – long halluxes Nonhuman primates have feet proportions similar to human hand Bipedalism Foot morphology Two arches Chumpanzees(and all other primates) – divergent (abducted) halluxes human Human- convergent (adducted) - halluxes differences chimpanzee Issues with bipedalism DentalMorphology Enamel thickness Homo sapiens Pan Pongo Gorilla DentalMorphology Reduced canines No diastema Molars, pre-molars, and incisors also reduced DentalMorphology Dental Arcade • Humans – parabolic • Primates – Parallel / block/ U-shaped Craniofacial Morphology Reduction in several traits Bone mass Muscle attachment sites Prognathism (modern humans are orthognathic ) Gorilla Homo sapiens TheBrain Brain size increased • Later adaptation • Used for genus classification • Indicative of cognitive abilities TheBrain Complexity increased TheBrain Frontal lobe enlargement TheBrain Reduced post-orbital constriction Hylobates Homo sapiens TheBrain Energy needs Increased size and complexity make the brain metabolically expensive Culture Increased reliance on material culture Culture Burial Body positions Grave goods Religion / spirituality Culture Fire Culture Culture Clothing Homohabilis Anthropology 2200 Australopithecus africanus Homo habilis GeneralTrendswithinGenus Homo • Increased brain size • Decreased post-orbital constriction • Increased bipedal commitment • More gracile face and teeth • Increased reliance on cultural adaptations Homohabilis • “Handy Man” • Lived 1.8-2.4 MYA – Contemporaneous with Australopithecus& Paranthropus Homohabilis Ancestral traits Supraorbital torus Short stature Longer arms than legs Inefficient bipedalism Homohabilis Derived traits Habitual biped Decreasing molar & pre-molar size More parabolic dental arcade Thicker enamel Larger brain Homohabilis Brain changes Average brain size: 650cc (510 – 750cc) 35% larger than Au. Africanus Half modern human size Large enough for Homo classification Larger brain corresponds with stone tools use Oldowan Tools • Stone tools used by H. habilis • Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania • 2.5 MYA • Uniface • Rounded stone with broken edge for cutting • Simple chopping tool (They have been used for food) Oldowan Tools What can the tools tell us about H. habilis lifestyle? Scavenging Tool caching Butchery sites? They might carry the meat and bring in all back Whydoesgenus Homo thrive? • Highly variable climate – Considerable habitat diversity – Adaptive plasticity • Do tools increase ability to exploit food source? Anthropology 2200 Homo habilis Homo erectus GeneralTrends • 250 KYA – 1.8 MYA • Increasing brain & body size • Changes in cranial shape • Obligate bipedalism (test!!) CranialMorphology • Brain size: 1000cc – Range: 800-1200cc • Projecting nasal bones • Some post-orbital constriction (human doesn’t have, chimp and gorilla have ) CranialMorphology • Long, low braincase (like football) • Large supraorbital torus with supraorbital sulcus (the deep) and you can balance a pencil • Moderate prognathism, far decreased CranialMorphology • Widest at base of skull – Nuchal torus Post-Cranial Morphology • Longer legs than arms • Compared to modern humans: – More robust bones – Identical bipedalism – Slightly shorter – Greater sexual dimorphism Homo sapiens Homo erectus Australopithecus afarensis FirstHomininOutsideofAfrica Asianvs.AfricanForms Asian forms have Same or different species? sagittal keel African Form Asian Form AfricanForms AKA H. ergaster • 300 KYA – 1.8 MYA • Cranial morphology – Thinner cranial bones – No sagittal keel – Smallersupraorbtal torus – Less distinct nuchal torus Acheulian tools AfricanForms Turkana/ Nariokotome Boy 8 years old 5’3’’, estimated 106lb Brain size: 880cc Broca’s area present (speech unlikely) Growth prolongation has started AsianForms Indonesia • First found by Dubois, 1891 – Java Man ~700 KYA • Other specimens dated to 1.8 MYA • Possible late surviving individuals until 27 KYA – Contemporaneous with modern humans! AsianForms China • Peking Man ~750 KYA – Zhoukoudian Cave – Possible use of fire – Oldowan tools European Forms • AKA H. antecessor • 1.2 MYA • Spain & Italy • 4-6 individuals European Forms • PossiblyH. georgicus? – Unclear where these fossils belong • Dmanisi, Georgia • 1.8 MYA • Small brain (650cc) • Short stature(adult male~5) • Large jaw, large teeth • Modern limb proportions • Modern pelvis • Oldowan tools Lumper or Splitter? Lumper • All forms are H. erectus Splitter • Asian forms – H. erectus • African forms – H. ergaster • European forms – H. antecessor H.habilis vs. H.erectus H. habilis H. erectus • Shorter stature • Taller stature • Smaller brain • Larger brain • Smaller body size • Larger body size • More robust jaws and teeth • Less robust jaws and teeth All of these changes happened between 2 MYA and 1.7 BioculturalEvolution African forms of H.erectus were experiencing major bicultural shifts BioculturalEvolution Acheulian Tools Biface Soft hammer technique Requires more forethought and planning BioculturalEvolution • Scavenging – Opportunistic hunting? BioculturalEvolution BioculturalEvolution Benefits of fire • Safety at night • Warmth • Food • Release nutrients • Removestoxins • Softens • Dries hides • Cooperation Evolutionary Trends • Wider geographic dispersal • Obligate bipedalism • Increasingly complex technology – Less robust bones – Smaller teeth – Larger brain and body – Greater intelligence – Increasing cooperation Neanderthals Anthropology 2200 Neanderthals • Species: Homo neanderthalensis orHomo sapiensneanderthalenses • Evolved from H. heidelbergensis in Europe between 300-130 KYA • Discovered in 1856 – Feldhofer Cave, Neander Valley, Germany • Lived throughout Europe and Middle East Neanderthals Environment • 130-70 KYA: interglacial • 70KYA-extinction: glacial maximum AMHS Neanderthal CranialMorphology Long braincase Receding forehead Double arched Supraorbital torus Cranial capacity 1520cc Mid-facial prognathism Occipital bun No chin Are AMHS brains really smaller than Neanderthals? Post-Cranial Morphology • Robust limb bones • Same height as modern humans in cold climates OtherBiologicalChanges Speech • Hyoid bone • FOX P2 gene identical to AMHS OtherBiologicalChanges Childhood • Growth periods slightly accelerated but within modern human ranges BioculturalEvolution Diet: primarily meat and cooked vegetables BioculturalEvolution Clothing First evidence: 540 KYA (H.heidelbergensis) BioculturalEvolution Body decoration Flight feathers BioculturalEvolution Body decoration Make-up / body painting BioculturalEvolution Tools • Mousterian • Made from flint/chert • LeVallois technique BioculturalEvolution Technology • Wood -working & hind – working • Spearheads • Engraving tools BioculturalEvolution Art • Necklaces (bone & teeth) – 35KYA BioculturalEvolution Art • Cave painting– 40KYA BioculturalEvolution Music • Flute – 43 KYA BioculturalEvolution Burial • Flexed position • Few grave goods – Flowers? – Care for elderly? BioculturalEvolution Living sites • Little evidence of structures • Numerous cave sites – Organized living area • Hearth in middle • Stone chips, animal bones (trash) in backof cave AThirdSpecies? The Denisovans 30, 000 years old Evidence • One tooth • Small finger bone fragment • Found in a cave in Siberia that also housed Neanderthals and AMHS (not sure if contemporaneous) Extinction ofthe Neanderthals & Denisovans • Last Neanderthal remains: 28 KYA • Contemporaneous with AMHS & Denisovans Extinction ofthe Neanderthals & Denisovans • Not our ancestor (mtDNA) • Some killed in conflict Extinction of the Neanderthals & Denisovans Admixture? • Hybrid Child – Portugal – 4 years old Extinction ofthe Neanderthals & Denisovans Admixture • Some AMHS share DNA with Neanderthals – European % Asian descent: 2-4% – Some AMHS share DNA with Denisovans 3-6% HowhasadmixedDNA beenmaintained? Forensic Anthropology Anthropology 2200 Whatisforensicanthropology? Applied biomedical anthropology within medico- legal context. • Mass disasters • Civil rights cases • Military recoveries Crime Scene Investigation Assess situation • Environment • Soil Crime Scene Investigation Look for animal trails • Scattered remains • Contextual disturbance Crime Scene Investigation • Locate, reference, describe, photograph everything in situ • Excavate if necessary GoalsofForensicAnthropology Positive ID • Age • Sex • Ancestry • Associated cultural material GoalsofForensic Anthropology Determine cause of death • Timing • Manner GoalsofForensicAnthropology Provide accurate physical evidence to legal authorities and be a reliable witness TimeofDeath Rate of decomposition • Climate specific • Clothing / wrappings • Burning • Entomology Age Growth stages Age Dental development Age Suture fusion Age Degeneration Sex Sex Stature Ancestry • No biological races • Geographic variation between populations • Genetic markers TimingofInjury Antemortem – before death TimingofInjury Perimortem– near time of death TimingofInjury Postmortem– after death Cause of Death Parry fractures Cause of Death Sharp Force Trauma Cause of Death Blunt Force Trauma Cause of Death Projectile Trauma Cause of Death Pathogenic • Systemic vs. localized CulturalVariation Body modification • Specific cultures • Specific time period • Purpose (medical vs. aesthetic) Earliest Hominins & Australopithecines Anthropology 2200 Hominidvs.Hominin Hominid – great ape (including humans) Hominin – human and human ancestors Last Common Ancestor with Chimpanzees • LCA was not a chimpanzee but is usually assumed to be chimpanzee-like • LCA ~ 8-10 MYA Orangutans Common Gorillas Ancestor Chimpanzees Humans History ofHomininResearch Prior to 20 century , nonhuman primates were used as models for human evolution research. History ofHominin Research Eugene Dubois – 1891 Java Man History ofHomininResearch Majority of fossils found in eastern and southern Africa Great Rift Valley • East Africa • Volcanic sediment • Frequent tectonic activity • Exposed geologic beds TheEarliestHominins Sahelanthropustchadensis • Lived ~7 MYA • Features: – Small teeth with thick enamel – Short face – Decreased prognathism – Large supraorbital (above eve) – Slightly centralized foramen magnum – This combination of features not seen in fossil apes or later hominins TheEarliestHominins Orrorintugenensis • Lived ~6 MYA • Earliest post-cranial remains • Features: – Ape-like canines – Mixed locomotion TheEarliestHominins • Ardipithecus ramidus & Ardipithecus kadabba • AKA Ardi • Lived 5-8
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