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Week 3 and 4 - Organic Chemistry I: Lecture Notes Ch. 2

by: Audrey Hernandez

Week 3 and 4 - Organic Chemistry I: Lecture Notes Ch. 2 CHEM 2410

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Organic Chemistry > CHEM 2410 > Week 3 and 4 Organic Chemistry I Lecture Notes Ch 2
Audrey Hernandez
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About this Document

Notes from weeks 3 and 4 that cover the entirety of chapter 2 of acids and bases as discussed in lecture.
Organic Chemistry 1
Joseph Schmidt
Class Notes
Science, Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, organic, acids, bases, acids and bases
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Hernandez on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 2410 at University of Toledo taught by Joseph Schmidt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Organic Chemistry at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Organic Chemistry I Week 4 Lecture Notes  Dr. Joseph Schmidt   Acids and Bases    ❖ Definitions of an acid  ➢ Bronsted­Lowry acids and bases  ■ Acids donate protons (H​ )  +​ +​ ■ Bases accept protons (H​ )  ➢ Lewis acids and bases  ■ Acids accept electron lone pairs  ■ Bases will donate electron lone pair  ❖ Basic acid/base reaction looks like this:  ­​ ­​ HA + B​ →  ​  + HB  ➢ In Bronsted­Lowry  ­ ​ ■ HA is an acid with A​ being its conjugate base  ■ B​ is a base while HB is its conjugate acid  ➢ In Lewis  ­​ ■ The HA is an acid and the A​ is the conjugate base  ■ The B​ is a base and HB is the conjugate acid  ■ It can be a rectangle and square situation in which every square is a  rectangle, but not every rectangle is a square  ● Every Bronsted­Lowry acid/base can be a Lewis acid/base, but not  every Lewis acid/base can be a Bronsted­Lowry acid/base.        Organic Chemistry I Week 4 Lecture Notes  Dr. Joseph Schmidt   ● Reaction 1 shows how BF​  is 3​Lewis base but not a  Bronsted­Lowry base as electrons are transferred, but no  protonation does not occur.  ● Reaction 2 shows how NH​  is 3​th a Lewis base and a  Bronsted­Lowry base by both donating electrons and accepting a  proton  ■ Reactivity terms:  ● Nucleophile  ◆ Electron rich  ◆ Likes to donate electrons  ◆ Is a Lewis base  ● Electrophile  ◆ Electron deficient   ◆ Accepts electrons  ◆ Is a Lewis acid  ❖ Factors for acidity strength  ➢ Depends on the strength of the H bonds in the molecule  ■ The weaker the H bond in the molecule the easier it is to dissociate   ➢ Works with the stabilization of conjugate base  ■ Electronegativity   ● Help stabilize resulting anions  ■ Inductive  ● Parallels electronegativity  ● More electronegative atoms in a molecule will pull electrons from  throughout the molecule towards them  ■ Size of charged ion  ● More important factor than electronegativity  ● Stabilize negative charge better with larger size  ■ Hybridization  ● Hybridization with lower energy orbital levels make for better  stabilization   ◆ The s orbital has lowest energy  ◆ The higher % s a hybrid orbital is, the more stable it will be  ■ Resonance structures  ● Molecules with more than one resonance structures will be more  stable than those with just one  ❖ Henderson­Hasselbalch equation  ­​ pK​a​= pH + log ([HA]/[A​])   


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