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Music 101, Week 3 Notes

by: Zackary Windham

Music 101, Week 3 Notes Music 101

Marketplace > Brigham Young University > Music > Music 101 > Music 101 Week 3 Notes
Zackary Windham

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About this Document

These notes cover ideas from Prelude 2 and chapter 13 through 15 in The Enjoyment of Music. Basically everything you would need to know to be prepared for class on Monday, September 19th.
Introduction to Music
Hannah C. McLaughlin
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zackary Windham on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 101 at Brigham Young University taught by Hannah C. McLaughlin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at Brigham Young University.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Unit 2: Medieval through Baroque The Enjoyment of Music- Prelude 2, “Music as Commodity and Social Activity”  We begin when Europeans begin musical notation, writing down music on paper.  A lot of the music from this time period was written for sacred purposes, written to be able to better extend Christian worship.  Middle Ages begins with the fall of the Roman Empire, in 476 C.E. Very Important date. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 13, “Voice and Worship: Tradition and Individuality in Medieval Chant”  The rise of monasteries shapes the culture of religious musical worship.  The music of the early church was Plainchant. The music was monophonic and free flowing, and it represented the starting point of artistic creativity in Western music. These melodies are often known today as Gregorian chants, named of Pope Gregory the Great who codified them.  Many Gregorian melodies were believed to have been composed by a divine mind.  Usually conjunct; falls into the earlier discussed categories of syllabic, neumatic, and melismatic.  Western music used a variety of scale patterns called modes. Typically, music from this time period is not tonal; sounds weird to us. Descended from Middle Eastern ideas.  Hildegard of Bingen- given to the church as her parents’ tenth child (tithe). Had visions since she was little; said to be able to foretell the future. Founded her own monastery and provided political and religious guidance to many popes, priests, and kings. Her works are slightly more expressive than traditional Gregorian chants; more leaps and melismas. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 14, “Layering Lines: Polyphony at Notre Dame”  Polyphony is the most important feature of western music.  Organum was the earliest polyphonic music, and it evolved from the practice of adding a second voice to a Gregorian chant at the interval of a fourth or fifth. Léonin was the first composer of polyphonic music whose name we know; he was the leader of the composers of Notre Dame.  Not all religious communities welcomed polyphony; it was seen as distracting in contrast to the simplicity of plainchant. The Enjoyment of Music- Ch. 15, “Symbols and Puzzles: Machaut and the Medieval Mind”  Many traveling entertainers began to develop a more secular form of music for everyday medieval life. Those in the south of France were called troubadours, while those in the north of France were known as trouvéres. Both terms meant “finders” or “inventors”.  The crusades brought a ton of culture over from the east, introducing our early scale system and many new instruments.  Most music from the troubadours was about passionate tales of love, war, heroism; like the crusades. 2  New musical style called Ars nova meaning “new art”. Appeared after the beginning of the merge of European and Eastern cultures. This brings ideas of rhythm, meter, harmony, and counterpoint.  Ars Nova begins to shift the subject of art from otherworldly ideals to human and natural subjects, from music to painting and all other art forms.  Machaut was a French composer who was highly influential. He favored the chanson, a type of music set to one of several fixed text forms: the rondeau, ballade, and virelai. His rondeau “Ma fin est mon commencement” is a musical puzzle, where the top two lines switch in the middle. 3


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