ANTH 1030 - Modern Human Origins
ANTH 1030 - Modern Human Origins ANTH 1030-001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1030-001 at University of Utah taught by Brian Codding in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see World Prehistory: Introduction in ANTH at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
ANTH 1030 – Modern Human Origins Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam The Multiregional Model - hypothesizes that human populations throughout the Old World evolved independently, first to archaic H. sapiens, then to fully modern humans. Argues for multiple origins of H. sapiens and no migrations later than those of H. erectus. Out-of-Africa Model - H. sapiens evolved in one place, and then spread to all other parts of the Old World. Assumes population movement from a single point of origin. Implies that modern geographic populations have shallow roots and were derived form a single source in relatively recent times. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): DNA inherited through the maternal line. AMHSS (anatomically modern homo sapiens) Cranium Morphology Cranial capacity > approx. 1,350 cc Relatively vertical forehead Vaulted braincase Smooth and rounded occipital Parietal bossing Small or absent brow ridge Flat face tucked under brain Prominent chin AMHSS Post Cranium Morphology Slender build Long-limbs and short trunks Barrel-shaped thorax (chest) Delicate pelvis with more vertical iliac blades AMHSS: physiological change BMHSS (behavioral modern): behavior change Intensified foraging practices Diverse tool production Art production accelerates Human populations expand Increased number of archaeological sites Diversification of haplogroups Populations extend out of Africa Hypotheses for the Emergence of BMHSS Climate change (?) Greater variation before and after; incorrect Increased tool uses and/or populations growth Cause of consequence; incorrect Symbolic cognition and the evolution of language Emergence of modern human life-history Core Hypotheses Human Spark Accelerated Cultural Evolution Resource Intensification Innovation: the act or process of introducing new ideas, devices (technology), or methods. *know punctuated vs gradual trees Human Spark Natural selection reduces variation Mutation introduces variation Any mutation that provides selective benefits should spread through a population A mutation that increased neural capacity (memory or language) would lead to increase innovation Behavior changes not accounted by brain size alone - did some mutation change the organization of the brain? Accelerated Cultural Evolution Information is adaptive (esp. in variable environments) Individual learning (innovation) = costly Social learning (diffusion) = cheap Innovators are only a small subset of the population Larger populations should have more innovators Larger populations should have more cumulative information Resource Intensification - working harder to get more resources out of the same area (more food, more people, higher cost). Populations are structured by resource availability Large populations place a burden on local resources Individuals must intensify work effort to sustain populations This inadvertently increases local carrying capacity Encourages innovation to reduce work effort
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