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ANTH 2220 – Positive ID & Forensic DNA & Forensic Odontology

by: Jazmine Beckstrand

ANTH 2220 – Positive ID & Forensic DNA & Forensic Odontology ANTH 2220-01

Marketplace > University of Utah > ANTH 2220-01 > ANTH 2220 Positive ID Forensic DNA Forensic Odontology
Jazmine Beckstrand
The U
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture material and assigned reading for this week of class.
Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
Derinna Kopp
Class Notes
forensic anthropology, DNA, odontology, CSI
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 2220-01 at University of Utah taught by Derinna Kopp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
ANTH 2220 – Positive ID & Forensic DNA & Forensic Odontology Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): the fundamental "blueprint" of all living matter, the genetic information that dictates the form and development of an organism.  Arranged as a double helix  Each strand of helix consists of long chains of nucleotides  Nucleotides: composed of a phosphate group (a type of sugar), and one of the four nitrogen bases  Nitrogen bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) Genes: provide particular genetic information for an organism (i.e. eye color, height, hair texture, skin color, etc.)  Most genes are made up of 5-10,000 base pairs (AT or CG pairs) Genome: one cell's collection of chromosomes.  Humans inherit a genome of 23 chromosomes per parent. DNA Typing: describes the system of assessing variation in sections of DNA for analysis.  Refers to a variety of methods which isolate and extract sections of DNA for observation and comparison.  Current typing system is short tandem repeats (STR)  STRs are DNA regions with repeat units 2-6 bp in length  Repeated a variable number of times; highly variable among individuals  Each STR is "tagged" using a fluorescently labeled primer  Often amplified in a multiplex reactions; one PRC reaction can amplify more than one allele  STR products are then separated by size for analysis DNA Fingerprinting: original method; looks at sections of DNA located in different regions on different chromosomes.  "multi-locus" typing system.  Produces patterns that are entirely unique to an individual except in identical twins.  Results are usually rendered as a sequence resembling a bar code. DNA Profiling: looks at one area on a specific chromosome.  Most recent development  Produces patterns that unrelated people are most unlikely to share.  Traits are not entirely unique in a population, so they are not considered fingerprints. Role of Forensic Odontology  Mass disasters  Bite mark evidence  Child abuse  Civil litigation  Person injury, malpractice, dental fraud Reasons for Establishing Identity  Settlement of insurance claims  Settlement of the individual's estate  Social Security benefits  Allowance of surviving spouse to remarry  Establishment of a corpus delicti in criminal matters  Burial of remains in keeping with religious beliefs What makes dental identification work?  Dental outlasts all other body tissues  Dental restorations and prostheses are extremely resistant  Radiographs can provide objective data  Infinite number of combinations  Comparison antemortem and postmortem records for identification  Antemortem records - relatives, hospitals or other health care facilities, dental schools, healthcare providers, employer dental insurance carrier, public aid insurance administrator  Postmortem record - comprehensive charting, x-rays, photographs, dental impressions, time lapse Making Postmortem Records  Teeth present  Erupted vs. unerupted/impacted  Missing teeth  Congenitally missing, lost antemortem, lost perimortem, lost postmortem  Pulp chamber and root canal morphology  Root canal therapy (gutta percha, silver points, endopaste) and retrofill procedures  Apicoectomy  Internal resorption  Dental restorations  Metallic restorations (amalgams, gold or non-precious metal crowns/inlays, endoposts, pins, fixed prostheses, implants)  Non-metallic restorations: acrylics, silicates, composites, porcelain, etc.  Partial and full removal prostheses Dental Identification Conclusions  Positive Identification: The antemortem and postmortem data match in sufficient detail, with no unexplainable discrepancies, to establish that they are from the same individual.  Possible Identification: the antemortem and postmortem data have consistent features but, because of the quality of either the postmortem remains or the ante-mortem evidence, it is not possible to establish identity positively.  Insufficient Evidence: The available information is insufficient to form the basis for a conclusion.  Exclusion: the antemortem and post-mortem data are clearly inconsistent. Forensic DNA - use of genetic information to match biological evidence with victim/offender Two Types of DNA  Nuclear (chromosomal)  mtDNA (mitochondrial)  100% inherited from mothers  Circular morphology  Hundreds to thousands of copies per cell  Easier to extract from degraded samples Notes:  humans share over 99% of DNA, only about 0.3% is unique (not conserved)  0.3% = 1 million differences in nitrogen base pair patterns  DNA is found in all body cells (expect mature red blood cells)  We leave a little bit of DNA everywhere we go  Most forensic sources of DNA are bodily fluid or transferred cells DNA Polymorphism: "many forms"; regions of DNA differ from person to person. Locus: site of location on a chromosome; plural = loci. Allele: different variants which can exist at a locus. DNA Profile: the combination of alleles for an individual. DNA Extraction  For each biological source of DNA you need a chemical purification method to separate DNA from everything else.  The amount of time and complexity of these methods depends on both the quantity and quality of the source. Purified DNA  Once DNA has been purified you can analyze it with two methods  Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP): using DNA "cutters" to separate DNA into fragments - DNA fingerprinting  Amplification or PCR: (Polymerase Chain Reaction) a technique for "replicating" DNA in the laboratory region to be amplified defined by PRIMERS  Electrophoresis: a technique for separating molecules according to their size. CODIS: Combined DNA Index System  Instituted in 1994 by the FBI  Made up of two indices:  Convicted offender index (DNA from convicted felons)  Forensic case Index (DNA from crime scenes)  Based on 14 STR loci  Probability of 2 unrelated individuals matching at all 13 sites = 1 trillion Note: it is easier to exclude a suspect than to convict someone based on a DNA match.  The FBI estimates that 1/3 of initial rape suspects are excluded because DNA samples failed to match.  It is important to examine all other clues, aside from DNA DNA Limitations  Not always preserved  Can't speak to perimortem trauma or postmortem alterations  Can build a genetic profile, but not a biological profile (age, sex, ancestry, etc.)  A genetic profile depends on comparative samples to match genetic identity


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