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BSC 114 Chapter 6a Notes

by: Lauren Dutch

BSC 114 Chapter 6a Notes BSC 114

Lauren Dutch
GPA 4.0

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membrane bound organelles notes
The Principles of Biology 1
Dr. Stephenson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stephenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see The Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chapter 6a. Membrane Bound I. Basics of cell structure A. All cell have membranes 1. A membrane is a semipermeable barrier to the passage of most molecules 2. The plasma membrane encloses the entire cell; all cells have a plasma membrane 3. Cytoplasm is everything inside the plasma membrane B. Organismal classification is based on cell type 1. Eukaryotes have a nucleus and other organelles  Animals, plants, fungi, true algae, protists 2. Prokaryotes don’t have a nucleus  Bacteria, archaea II. Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions and their genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by ribosomes A. Contain internal bound organelles 1. Organelles are membrane enclosed structures B. Nucleus 1. Contains genes and necessary enzymes/regulatory molecules 2. Surrounded by the nuclear envelope (membrane)  Double membrane  Continuous with endoplasmic reticulum  Nuclear pores form where the inner and outer membranes touch  Nuclear lamina is the network of fibers on the inside of the inner membrane that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope 3. DNA is organized into units called chromosomes that contain genes  Made of DNA and protein complexes called chromatin 4. Nucleolus is dense area in middle where ribosomal RNA is manufactured C. Endoplasmic reticulum 1. Network of vesicles and small membrane sacs 2. Protein synthesis and metabolic functions 3. Lumen is the inside cavity of the ER 4. Smooth ER  Network of vesicles and tubes close to the nucleus  Metabolic function because of enzymes in lumen  Lipid synthesis  Carbohydrate metabolism  Detoxification of drugs and poisons  Storage of calcium ions 5. Rough ER  Layers of flattened sacs  Ribosomes attached to outer cytoplasmic surface  Site where secretory proteins are made  Most secretory proteins are glycoproteins that are proteins with a carbohydrate covalently bonded to them  Transported in transport vesicles to exit the cell  Pancreatic cells have more because they make more protein for export 6. Ribosomes  Carry out protein synthesis  Complex of RNA and protein  Located in cytoplasm  Bound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the rER  Free ribosomes are not attached to the ER  Cells with high rates of protein synthesis have high numbers of ribosomes 7. Golgi apparatus  The “post office” of the cell  Flattened stacks and vesicles that are more compact and less extensive than the ER  Transport vesicles bud from the rER, fuse with the cis face of the Golgi apparatus, go from one level of the Golgi apparatus to the next, and then leave from the trans face to the plasma membrane , lysosomes, and vacuoles  Processing  Manufacture some macromolecules  Sort proteins by destination- some go to cell surface, some are secreted, some go to lysosomes, some go to vacuoles 8. Lysosomes  Spherical sac of enzymes used to digest macromolecules brought in by endocytosis  Vacuoles fuse with lysosomes after performing phagocytosis so that the large particle can be digested  Fuse with vesicles during autophagy to digest damaged organelles  Lysosomal digestive enzymes are routed to lysosomes via the rER and the Golgi apparatus 9. Vacuoles  Vesicles derived from the ER or the Golgi apparatus  Contractile vacuoles pump excess water out of the cell  The central vacuole is the storage vacuole in plant cells  Food vacuoles, formed by phagocytosis, forms when the cell engulfs a large particle from the outside and then attaches to a lysosome to digest the particle  Fat storage in adipose tissues 10. Peroxisomes  Roughly spherical compartment binding a granular/crystalline core with a single membrane  Detoxification of alcohol and poisons; breakdown of drugs (in liver)  Breakdown of fatty acids  Detox reactions remove hydrogen from drugs to create hydrogen peroxide which is then converted to water 11. Secretory pathway  Protein synthesis begins in the rER  Ribosomes synthesize proteins that pass through a pore into the rER lumen  In the rER lumen, proteins fold into 3D shapes and add carbohydrates as needed  Then sent to the Golgi apparatus where they enter the cis face, work through the layers, and then exit the trans face processed, modified, and sorted according to destination  Final destination is the plasma membrane for secretion  Transport vesicles are needed for all movement in the secretory pathway


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