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Week 4 notes - Chapter 18 - Blood functions and formation

by: Kimberly Krause

Week 4 notes - Chapter 18 - Blood functions and formation 2402

Marketplace > Tyler Junior College > Biology > 2402 > Week 4 notes Chapter 18 Blood functions and formation
Kimberly Krause
Tyler Junior College
GPA 4.0

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We had a test on Monday, so these notes cover chapter Wednesday and Friday's class. Hematopoiesis, Hypoxia, Disorders of the Blood Hemostasis, WBC movement, Transportation of Respiratory gases
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Cates
Class Notes
hematopoiesis, Blood, red blood cells, Hemostasis
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Krause on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2402 at Tyler Junior College taught by Dr. Cates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Tyler Junior College.

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Date Created: 09/17/16
A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/14/16 Hematopoiesis, Hypoxia, Disorders of the Blood Hematopoiesis/ Hemopoiesis (Formation of Blood Cells) Handout: Back of Ballpark Numbers page. 1st row of page. Steps to making all blood cells 1. Starts in the Red Bone Marrow aka Myeloid tissue Where is it found? -In children it is found in the spongy bone of most bones and in the medullary cavity of long bones. -In adults it is found in the flat bones of skull, vertebrae, ribs, stream, and hip, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur. 16 years old and up is less. 2. Starter cells: Blood stem cells or Hemocytoblasts are the cells that can turn into any type of blood cell. These can make any of the three formed elements of the blood. Listed below: 1. Erythropoiesis (RBC 2. Thrombopoiesis (Platelets 3. Leukopoiesis (WBC formation) formation) formation) a) Stem cell is a normal cell a) Started with the stem cell a) Starts with that normal stem cell b) Nucleus is ejected b) Turns into a Megakaryoblast b) Makes the leucocytes c) Turns into a Reticulocyte c) Which matures into a c) Which branch off into the different (hemoglobin making - immature Megakaryocyte. WBCs, except lymphocyte. RBCl) d) The little “tails” of the -The lymphocyte is not formed from d) Finally turns into a Erythrocyte megakaryocyte rip off to form the myeloid stem cell, but a lymph platelets. stem cell. 3. After the new cells are formed they enter the circulatory system. The lymphocytes however, can travel to lymphoid tissue. P.C. Translational Page 1 of 5 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/14/16 Hypoxia (Low oxygen in blood) Handout: Back of Ballpark Numbers 2nd row of page. Reasons: Less RBC, Less atmosphere (ex. high mountain, smoke, too many people), more activity -You can’t judge the oxygen in the air, because you become used to it slowly. How you get Hypoxia Starts with your kidneys which are the “clean up the garbage” organs. They take throw out the garbage. This way they keep blood balanced. They need oxygen, ATP, and correct blood pressure. Ex. Texans go to CO to ski, but the high altitude, extra exercise makes them get hypoxia, but they don’t feel the relief of more RBC (and therefore more O2) until they get back to TX. They get off the bus with more RBC’s and more O2, but because they don’t keep all that activity up etc, the “rush” quickly fade. Ex. Athletics purposely get hypoxia so they get flooded with RBC. They do this by sprinting periodically. How your body fixes it 1. Kidneys sense decreased blood oxygen levels. 2. Kidneys release the hormone EPO (erythropoietin) into the blood 3. EPO stimulates red bone marrow make more RBCs (because they carry the oxygen). 4. In 5 days new RBCs (reticulocytes) enter the blood stream 5. More oxygen can be carried by the RBC and O2 levels rise Recycling old RBCs RBCs have a lifespan of 120. After this, they are tattered and need to be recycled. Liver and Spleen are the two organs that clean up the old RBCs. Liver “catches” the old tattered RBCs in order to phagocytize by the macrophages in the liver. It can catch them because of the unique tissue of the organ. Ex. The tissue is like swamp. Things get stuck in it. Ex. Macrophages are like the muggers in the allies preying on old people. P.C. Memrise Sinusoid of the Liver Page 2 of 5 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/14/16 Rate of destruction: 3 million RBC/second Rate of creation: Hemoglobin splits into: 3 million RBC/second 1. Hem
 a) Iron (toxic- transported to liver by alpha and beta proteins) b) Bilirubin (yellow color. Too much can cause jaundice. Accounts for the yellow color of bile/feces) ex. Babies might be born with jaundice as liver is not working properly. Too much bilirubin. Yellow food in small intestine. Large intestine has the bacteria e. coli that turns poop brown. When babies poop finally changes to brown, parents rejoice; everything works! ex. Sick dogs eating poop to put e. coli back into gut. 2. Globin -protein which gets broken into amino acids can be used again. Page 3 of 5 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/14/16 Disorders of Varying Blood Levels Handout: Back of Ballpark Numbers 3nd row, 1st square. 1. Leukocytosis (more WBC) -elevated WBC means there’s an infection -The excess WBC’s are immature WBC’s. Ex. Like deputizing a bunch of people last minute. This “mob” would make chaos. 2. Leukopenia (less WBC) -Not enough “police force.” 3. Polycythemia (more RBC) -Blood is normally 5x thicker than water, with this condition it’s 8-10x thicker -Thick and gummy like liquid sandpaper. -Can be caused from excessive secretion of EPO and too much RBC production. Stressing kidneys to make more EPO. Or excessive high altitude. You cannot legally add more RBC’s because it leads to clots and emboli. Ex. Athletes thought they would get an advantage by adding more RBC’s, but unfortunately were causing clots from it. 4. Anemia (less RBC) -means “not blood” - less oxygen a) hemorrhagic - bleed out -heavy menstrual bleeding -chronic ulcers b) hemolytic - blown up cells -malaria - fever (is exploding RBCs, lots of garbage to clean up) -happens with hypotonic solution Page 4 of 5 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/14/16 c) aplastic - bad form -something is wrong with your bone marrow 5. (Less “good” hemoglobin)
 Fe + O2 = red color. You have to have iron to make hemoglobin 
 ex. Years ago they wanted kids to eat well, so they created Popeye to promote iron intake. a) Fe deficiency b) Pernicious anemia means “vague” and worthless -Can’t digest b12 ex. energy drinks that have an excess of B12 will give you a buzz, but it will wear off shortly because kidneys will flush out excess. c) Sickle cell anemia -Genetic (when someone inherits 2 copies of the sickle cell gene) ex. Because they are shaped like a sickle, they get stuck on each P.C. girliegirlarmy other, like coat hangers in a bag. -These will fill up arteries and cause pain in the joints. Page 5 of 5 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/16/16 Hemostasis, WBC movement, Transportation of Respiratory gases Hemostasis - Repairing damage to blood vessels Handout: Back of Ballpark Numbers page. 3rd row of page. 2nd block. Top. -Bruise is a result of those leaked RBC’s being broken down and the bilirubin and iron being released. -Hemostasis is like Texas DOT keeping roads. Steps to repair the blood vessels 1. Vascular Spasm (figure A) -This means the that the vessel constricts. It’s like when someone were to stick a knife in your gut the first reaction would be to fold over. It constricts so that it can reduce the flow of blood in that area and allow for repair of the damage. 2. Platelet Plug Formation (figure B) A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/16/16 -The collagen fibers create a sticky film, so when a platelet floats by it sticks to that site. Then more platelets start to stick, created a plug. Platelets secrete a solution that attracts more platelets and plug grows. 3. Coagulation Retraction/Fibrinolysis (figure C and D) -For blood clots you NEED CA++ and Vitamin K (made in large intestines) ex. diarrhea = bad clots and bad bleeding 1. Prothrombin Activator X (from liver plasma) activates thrombin. 2. Thrombin activates Fibrin. Fibrin floats around in plasma until there’s a damage in the vessel and it gets activated. 3. Fibrin flops over the platelet plug and more fibrins builds up ex. Scotch tape in fan ex. Silly string 4. Fibrin makes the web over the whole thing 5. Fibers in fibrin constrict and squeeze (retraction) it down. Making it a hard-packed clot. 6. The juice that is squeezed out of the clot is called a “serum.” -You can give a patient a serum, which keeps blood volume up without causing a clots. 7. Fibrinolysis is when the “patch” begins to dissolve -If the clot rips off and floats down the blood stream that’s called an embolus. Intrinsic means damage on the inside of the vessel signals repair. (slower) Extrinsic means damage is on the outside of the vessel signals repair. (faster) These two work together to repair the damage. Movement of White Blood Cells Handout: Back of Ballpark Numbers page. 3rd row of page. 2nd block. Bottom. Margination: WBC already alerted, traveling through vessel to site of injury Diapedesis: means “stepping out” It’s where the WBS changes shape to slip out of the vessel to damaged area. Chemotaxis: Chemo means chemical, so WBCs are like hound dogs sniffing out the inflammatory chemicals (histamine). Histamine is like a smoke alarm or a scream. ex. Like a Mom knowing there’s burnt popcorn. Phagocytosis: WBCs eat the bacteria. So, Mast cells bump into the bacteria and secrete histamine which initiates the inflammatory response. The WBCs “sense” the greater concentration of chemicals and rush to the site to eat the bacteria. Transportation of Respiratory Gasses A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/16/16 Handout: Back of Ballpark Numbers page. 4th and Last row. Hemoglobin of RBCs are the taxi service of the body. Loads up O2 from lungs and drops it off at the cells, then picks up CO2 and drops it off at the lungs. Hemoglobin only carries 20% of CO2 because rest of it is stored in Bicarbonate.


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