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BSC 114 Chapter 6b. Cytoskeleton, Extracellular Structures, Cell Junctions

by: Lauren Dutch

BSC 114 Chapter 6b. Cytoskeleton, Extracellular Structures, Cell Junctions BSC 114

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 114 > BSC 114 Chapter 6b Cytoskeleton Extracellular Structures Cell Junctions
Lauren Dutch
GPA 4.0

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combo of lecture note and book information
The Principles of Biology 1
Dr. Stephenson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Dutch on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Stephenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see The Principles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chapter 6b. Cytoskeleton, extracellular components, and cell junctions I. The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in a cell A. Skeleton AND muscles of cell necessary for strength, rigidity, force, and motility B. Motor proteins interact with cytoskeleton to aid in cell motility C. Three components 1. Microtubules (largest fiber)  Hollow tube composed of the protein tubulin  Internal position, appears to radiate from the central point by nucleus called the centrosome  Provide rigidity, strength, and organelle movement  Motor proteins move along the microtubules using energy from ATP hydrolysis  2 little feet attach to the microtubules and walk down them to move vesicles or organelles or to slide microtubules past each other  Dyneins are the large motor proteins that attach to the microtubules and produce the bending movement  Microtubule-based structures  Cilia- short and many  Flagella- long and few, only or two per cell  Cytoplasmic extensions containing complex arrangements of microtubules - 9 doublets of microtubules in a ring with two single microtubules in the center  Bend through help of dyneins 2. Microfilaments (smallest fiber)  Rod composed of globular protein actin (sometimes called actin filaments)  Peripheral in the cell, along the outside  Cell motility, structural support  Motor protein called myosin attaches 2 subunits to walk along the microfilaments and move organelles/molecules or slide microfilaments past each other  Reinforce microvilli- increase surface area  Amoeboid movement  Cytoplasmic streaming- circular flow of cytoplasm within the cell  Muscle contraction involving actin and myosin 3. Intermediate filaments  Rope like filaments made of fibrous proteins  Located throughout cell  Strictly structural function, no motor proteins needed  Extracellular intermediate filaments include skin, hair, nails II. Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities A. Extracellular components are structures formed outside the cell, external to the plasma membrane B. Cell wall 1. Main structural feature of plants 2. Made of cellulose (polysaccharide of glucose molecules), other polysaccharides, proteins, and glycoproteins 3. Formed when the components are secreted by cells into the extracellular space via the secretory pathway C. Extracellular matrix 1. Animal cells 2. Interlocked extracellular fibers made of proteins, polysaccharides, glycoproteins  Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix protein  Also made of fibronectin and proteoglycans  Cells anchor to extracellular matrix proteins through integrin proteins 3. Less rigid than cell walls to allow movement 4. Formed when components are secreted via the secretory pathway 5. Mechanical strength, cell to cell communication III. Cell junctions are connections between cells A. Plants 1. Plasmodesmata are holes in the cell walls where membranes of adjacent cells are continuous and cytoplasm is in contact B. Animals 1. Tight junctions  Plasma membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed together  Act as barrier to passage of fluids between adjacent cells 2. Desmosomes  Mechanical cell-cell attachment reinforced with intermediate filaments  Fasten cells together into strong sheets  Example: skin 3. Gap junctions  Cytoplasmic contact between adjacent cells that allows the passage of molecules  Equivalent to plasmodesmata in plant cells


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