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Chapter 2 notes

by: Taytum Guzman

Chapter 2 notes GEOL 1340

Taytum Guzman

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About this Document

covered during week 2
Weather and Climate
Ron Jackson
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Weather and Climate

Popular in Science

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taytum Guzman on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1340 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Ron Jackson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Science at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chapter 2 Notes Energy- ability or capacity to do work Potential energy- potential to do work Kinetic energy- any moving substance possessing energy of motion (wind, moving water) Radiant energy- the sun. Most important in weather and climate. 1 law of thermodynamics – energy can’t be created or destroyed, it just changes form…..physical to chemical for example. Temperature- measure of the average speed of atoms and molecules. Higher the speed, the higher the temp. Absolute zero- minimum amount of energy Kelvin scale- begins at absolute zero. K = C(deg.) +273 Internal energy- total of thermal and kinetic energy Heat- the process of energy transfer Heat capacity- ratio of heat Latent heat- energy required to change one substance to another Evaporation- cooling process Condensation- warming process Sensible heat- heat we feel and measure with thermometer Sublimation- solid to gas (dry ice) Deposition- gas to solid (frost, sulphur) Heat transfer in atmosphere: Conduction- transfer of heat molecule to molecule Air is a poor conductor, while metal is a high conductor Convection- transfer of heat by mass movement of a fluid like water or air Thermals- rising bubbles or warm air. As warm air rises, it’s replaced by cooler air around it Advection- horizontal motion of air (wind) from one location to another Radiation- energy transferred in waves –electromagnetic waves at speed of light ALL THINGS EMIT RADIATION Radiation of sun and Earth Sun surface temp. = 6,000 K Earth = 288 K Wein’s Law: max radiation = Constant/Temp. Earth emits most of its energy at longer wavelengths. Longwave radiation Sun emits most of its energy at shorter wavelengths. Shortwave radiation Visible light .4 - .7 micrometers Wavelengths <.4 um: ultraviolet Wavelengths >.4 um: infrared Black body- absorbs and emits its radiation (Earth) Radiative equilibrium temperature -earth absorbs solar radiation and emits infrared radiation at equal rates Selective absorbers – objects that selectively absorb/emit radiation such as gas in atoms. Kirchoff’s law: “good absorbers are good emitters at particular wavelengths, and poor absorbers and poor emitters at the same wavelength. Good absorbers of infrared radiates, but poor absorber of visible solar radiation. Greenhouse effect: visible radiation comes in and infrared radiation is trapped. Clouds are excellent emitters of infrared energy. Nights are warmer with clouds, and days are usually cooler with clouds. Infrared energy emitted Studies show in earth surface air temp. is slightly warming, mostly due to the Greenhouse gas CO2. Incoming solar energy Scattering light- deflected in all directions. Air molecules and dust particles. Reflected light- object that reflects sunlight and absorbs little. Snow- 95% solar radiation reflected Water – 2 – 10% solar radiation reflected Albedo – the % of radiation returning from and surface compared to that which strikes it. Reflectivity of surface. Snow –high, forest –low.


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