Bio Chapter 6
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Berry on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101 at Missouri State University taught by Kyoungtae Kim in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biology in Your World in Science at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Key: Light Blue = main idea Purple = important parts of the main idea Green = examples Orange = key terms Pink = the definition of the key term Red = especially important Chapter 6: An Intro to Energy Energy is central to life Energy always runs down from more concentrated too less The sun sends out light and heat but it will not shine forever Its energy winds down gradually It’s important that living things learn to control the energy they get from the sun Living things have mechanisms in place that let them utilize the sun’s energy The nature of energy Energy: the capacity to bring movement against an opposing force Energy is a tricky concept because we can only experience it’s affects, we cannot see or grasp it Forms of energy: Many types of energy: Mechanical energy Like the spring on a wound up toy Chemical energy Chemical bonds Potential energy Kinetic energy Potential energy: stored energy Ex. The charged ions kept on one side of a cell membrane Kinetic energy: energy in motion Ex. Charge ions rushing through a protein channel Thermodynamics Thermodynamics: study of energy The first law of thermodynamics: energy is not created or destroyed, only transformed The sun’s energy is not used up by plants only converted in chemical form For every energy transaction at least some energy is converted into heat Energy transformation will spontaneously run only from greater order to lesser order Second law of thermodynamics: energy transfer always results in a greater amount of disorder in the universe Entropy: a measure of the amount of disorder in a system the greater the entropy the greater the disorder Key: Light Blue = main idea Purple = important parts of the main idea Green = examples Orange = key terms Pink = the definition of the key term Red = especially important Consequences of Thermodynamics Once heat is generated there is no spontaneous way it can make its way back to orderly form (sunlight) The sun can sustain life, dispersed light cannot How energy is used by living things A growing plant builds itself up from smaller, simple molecules to complex, big ones Living things are contributors to the universe’s entropy Any biological activity, like a leaf growing, generates heat increasing disorder in the universe Living things can make local increases in order in themselves with the sun’s energy Exergonic reactions: reactions where the starting set of molecules (reactants) contain more energy than the final set (products) Ex. Starches breaking down into sugars Endergonic reactions: where the products contain more energy than the reactants Ex. Like when glucose molecules form glycogen Coupled reactions: a chemical reaction where an exergonic reaction powers are endergonic reaction The energy dispenser ATP ATP releases that energy that allows say, muscle contraction ATP receives energy from food and the doles it out for things like muscle contraction Converts the energy in food to usable energy the body can use Accepts large amounts of energy from a food source and then passes on the energy to a range of molecules in the body ATP (adenosine triphosphate): the most important energy transfer molecule in living things Enzymes Enzyme: a type of protein that accelerates a chemical reaction Some enzymes combine molecules, some rearrange them Enzymes facilitate almost every chemical process in living things No organism can live without them These compounds accelerate reactions that would happen anyway Specific enzymes are matched to specific tasks Substrate: substance worked on by an enzyme Some activities in living things have many steps and require an enzyme for each step (ex. Leaf growth) Key: Light Blue = main idea Purple = important parts of the main idea Green = examples Orange = key terms Pink = the definition of the key term Red = especially important Metabolic pathway: enzymatically controlled steps that result in the composition of a product/process in an organism Each enzyme performs its task and then leaves the next step to the next enzyme Metabolism: the sum of all the chemical reactions that cell or larger organism carries out Enzymes and the Activation Barrier Enzymes lower the amount of energy needed to get chemical reactions going The reactions can also get going faster Activation energy: the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction How enzymes work Enzymes lower activation energy by binding substrates making them more vulnerable to chemical alteration Enzymes are catalysts Catalysts: substances that retain their original chemical composition while changing a substrate Enzymes take form of ball like proteins with a pocket for substrates Active site: the portion of an enzyme that binds with a substrate, helping transform it Participants at this site include coenzymes Coenzymes: molecules other than amino acids that facilitate the work of enzymes by binding with them How an enzyme carries out its work depends on the enzyme
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