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Book Notes Chapter 2

by: rayparkerjr

Book Notes Chapter 2 Justice 2004

GPA 3.0

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These notes cover book notes in Chapter 2
Crime and Criminalities
Abdullah Cihan
Class Notes
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Popular in Crime and Criminalities

Popular in Criminal Justice Studies

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by rayparkerjr on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Justice 2004 at East Central Community College taught by Abdullah Cihan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Crime and Criminalities in Criminal Justice Studies at East Central Community College.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chapter 2 Book Notes Before Classical Criminology and the Deterrence Doctrine  During the early Middle Ages o Spiritualism (Demonological) explanations and the determination of guilt or innocence  Trial by battle or trial by ordeal  Late 18th - late19th centuries; the “Age of Reason” o Human behavior is a product of free choice. Classical Criminology  Classical criminology refers to the principles written in the 18th century by Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham o Beccaria - Crimes and Punishments, 1764  States should make written criminal laws with respect to social contract  Criminal laws should not be used to enforce moral values  Increased use of prisons (over 2.2 million people are behind bars in the US)  The punishment should fit the crime  Suspect rights  The presumption of innocence  Procedures to provide prompt trial and sentencing o Bentham’s influence  Human nature is  Hedonistic(utilitarian calculus):  cost/benefit analysis  pain pleasure ratio and rational  Humans are likely to make the same choices when confronted with similar situations (individuals choose to engage in criminal behavior when it pays)  Bentham envisioned the “panopticon” sanctuary  Classical Criminology Today o They were against Torture and cruel punishments, which were commonly used before 18 century.  Bill of Rights prevents cruel and unusual punishment o Severity of punishment to Beccaria and Bentham  The punishment must be just painful enough to outweigh the pleasure gained by the crime. o Deterrence Theory  Individuals* use hedonistic calculus (free will –classical criminology) before they act.  Based on expected utility principle, deterrence theory suggests three main elements:  If punishment is o Certain- Certainty-means that offenders understand if they commit a crime they will be punished. o Severe-means that punishment must be harsh enough to deter crime o swift (celerity)- certainty is more effectively than severity.  then we should be able to prevent crime Specific and General Deterrence o General deterrence aimed at the specific offender.  police presence o Specific deterrence aimed at the remainder of society.  Sex offender laws, three strikes law o Absolute Deterrence: The existence of the CJ system deters an unknown amount of crime and wrongdoing o Marginal deterrence: A more serious crime is expected to have harsher punishment than a less serious crime


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