CSTU 101: Week 3 Notes
CSTU 101: Week 3 Notes CSTU 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by DanielleCuller21 on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSTU 101 at Liberty University taught by Ms. Caitlin Elliott in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Western Culture in Cultural Studies at Liberty University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
CSTU 101Western CultureWeek 3 Notes: ANCIENT ASIA AND AMERICA: THE INDUS VALLEY (26001750 BCE) o Of the ancient civilizations the Indus Valley Civilization was the most widespread (estimated 5 million + people) o Urban planning was a major focus Urban Planning: Streets laid out in a grid system Each house had access to water, bathing space, drainage facilities Different houses for different social classes o Religion: Seals were of religious significance (presumed by the sheer number of them found) but it is unknown what they were used for Potentially connected to eastern religions because of the images found on seals The dead were not buried with their valuables (in comparison to Ancient Egypt) and some of the dead were cremated BRONZE AGE CHINA (2100256 BCE) o Shang Dynasty (15231028 BCE) Height of China during the Bronze age o (like Egypt) China is remembered for their unity and consistency o Writing form has been the same for the past 4,000 years o A king’s right to rule was based on his relationship with his ancestors o King’s job was to please the ‘great forces of nature’ to ensure the harvest was plentiful for his people o Oracle bones were used for divinations (used by Kings and the common people) o Oracle bones divinations were then recorded in the Book of Changes o Divinations were revealed by seemingly random change, believed to be the will of the gods ANCIENT AMERICA o Olmec Culture (mother culture of Americas) Religious beliefs were not well documented (scholars have had to rely on similar artifacts from similar civilizations to interpret their purposes) MYTH: o Stories that explain in symbolic terms the nature of the cosmos and humans place in the world o Evidence of belief in a ‘higher reality’ o Unifying idea that links a group of people together Ancient Myths: Sumer’s creation story Mayan’s Popul Vuh Egypt’s Book of the Dead and Weighing of the Heart Ritual China’s Book of Changes What can be made of the lack of religious findings in the Indus Valley? EARLY GREECE (2500490 BCE) o Functions of mythology Establishes correct models of behavior Cautious against incorrect behaviors Answers questions of origin Develops national identity o The Labyrinth From Minoan Civilization Designed by Daedalus for King Minos to contain the Minotaur Daedalus knew the maze so he and his son Icarus were imprisoned In another myth the minotaur is killed by Prince Theseus of Athens Daedalus tells Theseus to use a spool of wool to find his way out o Myth: Epic Hero: Ideal personhood o The Odyssey Greek Epic written by Homer Composed during the Greek Dark Ages Takes place in the aftermath of the Trojan War o Fatalism and Rationalism Fatalism (concept that the Fates controlled your destiny) combined with Greek theology centered on fundamental injustice The gods live in luxury on Mt. Olympus while humans live in misery at the god’s whim Try to control what little you can but do so responsibly The Fates: Clotho: Spun thread of life (decided when you are born) Lachesis: measured thread of life (chose the length of your life) Atropos: cut the thread of life (chose when someone died CLASSICAL GREECE (497323 BCE) o The Persian War: Greece’s victory produced a new spirit of optimism o Athens became the most powerful city in the ancient world at this time VISUAL ARTS: Focus on naturalism and idealism melded together (human and deity: reality and idealism) Art functioned as a visual counterpart to mathematic harmony and the ideals of moderation, balance, order, and the quest for perfection Canon of proportions: th o Polykleitos: Greek sculpture, 5 Century developed a standard for rendering the most realistic human form Philosophy: o The Fates: Fatalism o Rationalism: The belief that human reason or logic is the ultimate source of knowledge and authority o Empiricism: the belief that human experience teaches best (Aristotle: Tabula Rasa: born with no natural understanding, everything must be learned) Philosophical Movements: o Materialists: Concerned with the origins and nature of physical reality o Idealists: Focused on the rational design of the “big picture” metaphysical reality (reality is the ultimate expression or ideal form of anything) Philosophers: o Plato: Idealist: developed concept of forms: Forms: the materialistic world is only an image or a copy of the real world, ideal realm contains the true/ideal representation of the image and we only see a shadow of the true form on this plane o Aristotle: Materialist: Knowledge of essences Argued that the forms of objects are intrinsic to the forms themselves and cannot exist apart from them