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Psych 2003 Chapter 3 Lecture Notes

by: Micayla Coco

Psych 2003 Chapter 3 Lecture Notes PSYC 2003

Marketplace > Southern Arkansas University Main Campus > PSYC 2003 > Psych 2003 Chapter 3 Lecture Notes
Micayla Coco


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About this Document

Everything covered in Chapter 3 lecture with labelled pictures to aid in study
General Psychology
Dr. Jon Oxford
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology, psych
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Micayla Coco on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2003 at Southern Arkansas University Main Campus taught by Dr. Jon Oxford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chapter Three: Biological Foundations of Behavior Neuroscience: • The study of the brain or nervous system o Body’s electrochemical communication circuitry o Biological foundations of consciousness, perception, memory, emotion, stress, and mental disorders Central Nervous System (CNS) • Brain and Spinal Chord o Protected by the blood-brain barrier Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • Can amp you up or bring you down • Somatic nervous system (soma=body) o Sensory nerves o Motor nerves • Autonomic nervous system o Sympathetic (fight or flight or tend and befriend) o Parasympathetic (rest and digest) Cells of the Nervous System • Neuron o The brain’s communication specialists, transmitting information to, from, and within the central nervous system • Glial Cells 1. Surround neurons and hold them in place 2. Supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons 3. Insulate one neuron from another 4. Destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons Structure of a Neuron: 1. Dendrites a. Receive info and transmit it to the cell body 2. Cell Body (soma a. Center triggers action potential or not 3. Axon a. Transmits message away from the cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands 4. Terminal Buttons a. Synapse with neurotransmitters Action Potential Dendrites -> soma -> axon -> terminal buttons D from inside/outside axon +/- voltage (cell body to terminal buttons release neurotransmitters) Neural Impulse • Negatively and positively charged ions • Polarization (imbalance of charges) • Resting potential • Semipermeable membrane • Ion channels • Depolarization (ion channels open) • Threshold • Action potential (ion sweeps along length of axon) Synapses and Neurotransmitters • If all they do is transmit signals, why are there so many different types? o First, need to see the brain and functions o Second, neurons are usually specific to type of NT o Third, we will see how they function o Fourth, realize just transmitting signal is done by GABA (+) and glutamate (-) Acetylcholine • REM sleep, PN- motor Primary NT CNS • GABA (-) o Alcohol • Glutamate (+) v PHINEAS GAGE – sophisticated socialite to angry and unreliable after a steel rod went through prefrontal cortex Neurotransmitters: • Glutamate (+) [MSG – Mono Sodium Glutamate] o Excitatory ^ (migraines) o Learning and memory o MSG and other cell death • Norepinephrine o Stress and mania: increased levels of norepinephrine [bipolar] o Adderall increases norepinephrine (& dopamine) levels o Think stress: arousal and alertness, vigilance, focuses attention • Dopamine o Voluntary movement o Reward anticipation (motivator) o Stimulant drugs: activate dopamine receptors o Parkinson’s disease = decreased dopamine levels o Schizophrenia = increased dopamine levels o Dopamine (intropin) injection -> increases heart pumping strength § Inhibits norepinephrine release and is vasodilator § Does not cross the blood-brain barrier, thus L-DOPA • Serotonin o Regulation of sleep, mood, attention, learning, wakefulness o Depression = decreased serotonin levels o Prozac = reuptake inhibitor • Endorphins (endogenous + morphine) o Natural opiates o Mediate feelings of pleasure and pain o Runners high • Oxytocin o Both a hormone and a neurotransmitter o Attachment mechanisms and emotional bonds o Related to onset of lactation in new moms Drugs can interfere with neurotransmitters • Can mimic or enhance NT effects • Block effects of NT (methadone) Neural Networks • Interconnected pathways of nerve cells • Integrate sensory input and motor input • Develops across the years • Where a given piece of info is stored: o Not in a lone neuron or connection o But spread over multiple connections and neurons Studying the Brain • Brain lesioning o Naturally occurring or induced • Electrical Recording o Electroencephalograph (EEG) § a recording of neural activity detected by electrodes on the scalp o Single-unit recording Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) • Electrical current through a wire coil on a person’s head • No need for electrodes • Can be used to o Produce motor responses o Temporarily inactivate an area of the brain o Treat depression (however, the effectiveness of TMS for this use is unclear) Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan) • Radiolabeled tracer o Can show blood f low, glucose metabolism or other o Example, glucose analogue shows which areas are active Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • Magnetic fields and radio waves produce vibrations in atoms • MRI – images structure Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) • Video, activity • Hemodynamic response • Blood O 2evel dependent (BOLD) contrast The Parts of the Brain Hindbrain: • Brain Stem o Pons § Involved in sleeping, waking, and dreaming o Medulla § Automatic: breathing and heartbeat o The Cerebellum § Most solidly established is role in movement § Receives sensory input and integrates for fine coordination o Reticular Activating System § Arouses cortex and screens incoming information Midbrain • Sustantia Nigra o Dark substance o Parkinson’s disease Forebrain: • Thalamus o Relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex o Includes all sensory messages except those of smell, which are “processed” by the olfactory bulb o Relay • Limbic System o Olfactory bulb’s, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus o Basic emotion § Fear, pleasure, anger o Basic drives § Hunger, sex, dominance, parental o Hypothalamus § Think hormones! § Involved in drives vital to survival • Hunger, thirst, emotion, sex, reproduction • Controls the autonomic nervous system • Eating, drinking, sexual behaviors • Regulates body’s internal state • Emotion, stress, reward o Pituitary Gland § Small endocrine gland which releases hormones and regulates other endocrine glands § Think of it as the master gland o Amygdala § Think emotion § Key role in processing emotions (+/-) § Natural selection • Strong response to anger faces, fear conditioning • More dimorphic in humans • 30% shrink after castration • key role: anxiety, depression, PTSD, phobias • decision making (impossible without) § Flashbulb memories work because the amygdala is located directly next to the hippocampus • Basal Ganglia o Coordination of voluntary movements • Hippocampus o Memory consolidation § Short term and long term The Cerebral Cortex • Largest brain structure o Two cerebral hemispheres connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum § Usually more developed in women than men • In charge of higher forms of thinking • Neocortex: outermost layer • Four lobes: o Occipital (vision) o Temporal (hearing, language processing, memory) o Frontal (intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles) o Parietal (spatial location, attention, motor control) Prefrontal Cortex • Orchestration of thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals • Circuits with amygdala • Destruction of: o Anterior portion -> deficits, concentration, judgement o Orbital portion -> inappropriate behavior (mind of a killer)


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