Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 2 Notes
Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 2 Notes Hist 462
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 462 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Juan Romero in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see History of the Middle East in History at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
August 30 Quran: Makkanese suras: older, shorter, spiritual content. Madinese suras: younger, longer, practical content. Surah: Chapter Aya: Verse; Only one sanctioned version of the Quran. Succession to the Prophet: Sunni version: Abu Bakr elected caliph (khalifa). Appointed by Muhammad. Shi‘i version: Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman were usurpers. This position belonged to ‘Ali, appointed by Allah. Hedith: Prophetic traditions/sayings of Muhammad Isnad: Chain of authority Properly guided caliphs: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali Ghadir Khumm: o Last revelation at a well; o Meaning of “Wali” o Ali occupied some sort of elevated position o Tension between Sunni and Shi’i Saqifa: o Assembly building in Medina o Ali had started to mourn Muhammad’s death o Factions formed o Umar pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr (people rushed to swear their allegiance.) Ahl alBait: o People of the House (Slw’i) Factions vying for control after Muhammad’s death: (1) Muhajirun—(emigrants) to Medina (2) Ansar (supporters)—Medinese converts (3) Legitimists—Ali Supporters (4) Wealthy leaders of the Quraish clan—Merchants Factors contributing to Arab conquests: internecine wars b/w the Byzantine and Persian empires heavy taxes Arabian tribes in Syria and Mesopotamia less tribute than under old rulers more religious freedom Byzantine hold over Syria was tenuous Arabs were perceived as liberators Interpretations of the Arab conquest: (1) a religious movement (argument of Arab sources) (2) the Quran offered with the one hand and the sword with the other (Christian argument) (3) most desirable choice for conquered and conquerors alike was tribute (4) economic necessity compelled the Arabs to conquer other countries (1) Reasons for conversion: (1) people’s selfinterest (2) to identify with the ruling class ‘Umar’s constitution: No other religion tolerated in the Arabian Peninsula Arabs constituted a martial aristocracy Only movable property and prisoners won as booty belonged to the warriors, but not the land Strength of the Muslim Arab armies: (1) higher morale (2) endurance (3) mobility The Four Rashidun: Abu Bakr, 632634 ‘Umar, 634644 ‘Uthman, 644656; assassinated ‘Ali, 656661, assassinated Caliph: Sunni view: the caliph not a prophet, not a messenger of God. Imam: prayer leader. Shi‘i view: imam a spiritual leader chosen by God, worthy of the emulation of the Muslim community. Twelve imams according to Twelver (Iranian) Shi‘ism. Civil War: Friction b/w companions of the Prophet and other groups in Muslim society; Mu‘awiya and ‘Ali; Yazid and ‘Ali’s son Husain. Implications of civil war: Umayyads wanted all temporal power; Muhammad’s descendants wanted temporal and spiritual power. Ummayyad Society: Arabs and conquered peoples lived in separate quarters. Social classes: (1) Muslim aristocracy; (2) NeoMuslims, full rights granted in theory; (3) ahl aldhimma, Christians; (4) Slaves; converts to Islam not manumitted September 1 Reasons for the decline of the Umayyad caliphate: (1) Rivalry and friction b/w north and south Arabs. (2) Lack of fixed rules of hereditary succession. (3) Strong opposition to Umayyads among followers of ‘Ali. (4) Dissatisfaction among nonMuslims and Persian Muslims. Abu Muslim: Rebelled against the Umayyads in 749. Captured and killed caliph in 750. Significance: The purely Arab domination of the caliphate came to an end. Mesopotamians liberated from Syrian control. Capital moved to alKufa. Persians held important posts in the government. Caliphate Tension between Arab Muslims and nonArab Muslim based on status in society. The caliphate was no longer identical with Islam. Peripheral territories in east and west did not fully recognize the ‘Abbasid caliph. Ceased to be a state based on religion with Abu Bakr. Separation b/w/ state and religion. The ‘Abbasid state Following the dissoluteness of the last Umayyad caliphs, an initial ‘Abbasid emphasis on religion. No real standing army. Caliphal bodyguard the nucleus of the army. Turkish mercenaries exercised an increasing influence. The Arab element became less important. Slaves: nonMuslims. The caliph sent trusted slaves as presents to officials to act as his spies. Dhimmis: Christians and Jews and other nonMuslims that were being protected by Muslim rulers Christians and Jews often held important positions in the administration. Discrimination existed, but was not always enforced. The caliph al Mutawakkil forced Christians and Jews to affix images of devils to their houses in the 850s. Jews generally fared better than Christians b/c they were fewer in numbers and posed less of a threat. Conversion: Christian presence in Syria and Egypt remained strong. Zoroastrian presence continued in Iran. Reasons for ‘Abbasid decline (1) Division between north and south. (2) Persians, Turks, Berbers were never wholly integrated. (3) Persians never forgot their glorious past. (4) Syrians resented ‘Abbasid control. (5) Epidemics. (6) Mongol invasion. Qibla—Prayer direction Mongol Dynasty did not last long but extended far Much of army settled in the Middle East and established their own dynasties ILKHNZ Dynasty based in Persia Converted to Islam Legal Schools (Sunni): Hanbali Hanafi Shafii Maliki ^^^^^Interpret Quran and Hedith; no fundamental differences^^^^^ Jaafiri (Shi’i) o 5 Imam Mohadin: Person who sounds the call to prayer Arab Conquests: according to Islam, were faithbased Bedouin: Pure Arabism o Why parents sent their kids to live with them
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