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Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 3 Notes

by: Kayteeessbee

Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 3 Notes Hist 462

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > History > Hist 462 > Hist 462 History of the Middle East Week 3 Notes
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About this Document

These cover the notes posted on Blackboard as well as supplementary information that we discussed during class with Dr. Romero.
History of the Middle East
Dr. Juan Romero
Class Notes
MiddleEast, history, terrorism, Egypt, islam, Muhammad
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 462 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Juan Romero in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see History of the Middle East in History at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
September 6 Three centers in the Islamic world in the sixteenth century: 1. Mughal Empire o Most of Indian sub­continent 2. Safavid Empire o Prussia (1501)—Shii (convert or die.) 3. Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire: Conquest of Constantinople, 1453 C.E. Reasons for successful military campaigns in the sixteenth century: (1) more gunpowder weapons than any other army; (2) troops more regularly fed than other armies.  Turks migrated and established their own empire in Eastern Turkey or  Anatolio, in 1300  1453, Constantinople fell o Paved way for expansion o After late 1600s, power was in constant decline  Through occupation of Egypt gained access to title of caliph.  Sieges of Vienna: 1529 and 1683. Reason for successful administration of conquered territories:  flexible administrative practices accommodated needs of different regions  and cultures  Non­intrusive to local runnings  Accommodated different regions and cultures Principles of Ottoman governance: (1) the tradition of gaza, war against non­Muslims (2) legacy of urban Islamic civilization; (3) local custom; (4) division of society into rulers and ruled. Succession  He who first secured the support of the court and the army became the  next sultan.  This practice was discontinued in the seventeenth century, as was the  program of training princes.   As a result the latter had no governing experience.  Slave elite  Devshirme system: procurement of slaves from among Christian subjects  (converted to Islam)  Religious establishment and lower and middle levels of bureaucracy  composed of free Muslims only.  Offspring of most talented slaves in leadership positions considered free  Muslims. Janissaries: elite slave army; was paid regular salaries. Sipahis: provincial cavalrymen. Freeborn Muslims. Religious establishment: sheikh al­Islam, highest religious official; oversaw  appointment of qadis (judged) and madrasa teachers.   19  Century introduced secularization of school curriculum Millet system  non­Muslim subjects organized into religious communities called millets;  granted considerable autonomy;  non­Muslims barred from service in the army;  barred from becoming members of the ruling elite. Reasons for loss of Ottoman superiority External (1) penetration of European capital; (2) Ottoman raw materials exchanged for European manufactured goods; were  placed at a disadvantage. (3) inflation; (4) capitulation agreementscommercial agreements; Europeans given more  privileges (extra­territoriality) Internal (1) rule of incompetent sultans; (2) struggles over successions; (3) discord within the court (factions fighting) (4) inflation devastating effect on fixed salaries of state employees. Wars  Treaty of Karlowitz (1699): concluded b/w Ottoman Empire and Austria,  Poland, and Venice.War 1683­1697, Ottoman defeat. Ceded Hungary,  Croatia, and Slovenia to Austria; Podolia to Poland, and Peloponnesus  and most of Dalmatia to Venice.  Russia gained Azov in a separate peace in 1700. Safavid Empire  Shah Isma‘il (1487­1524; shah 1501­1524)  Proclaimed himself shah in 1501.  Twelver Shi‘ism official religion of the state (Originally it was Sunni)  Safavids originally a Turcoman Sunni brotherhood.  Created a more centralized government.  Army not equipped with firearms.  Mesopotamia a battleground for Ottoman­Safavid rivalry. Shah ‘Abbas the Great (1571­1629) (1) Built up a Christian slave army as a counterweight to the tribes; (2) Reconquered territory lost to the Ottomans, Uzbeks, Portuguese, and  Mughals; (3) Moved capital to Isfahan; (4) transferred lands from tribal leaders to his own estates to finance the new  army.  Friction b/w Turcomans and Persians. The latter no right to exercise military  command. Bases of Safavid power (1) theory of the divine right of Persian kings; (2) claimed to be Mahdi’s representatives on earth; (3) position of Safavid shahs as murshid­e­kamil, i.e. perfect spiritual director of  the Sufi order Safaviyya. Safaviyya  Shaikh Safi al­Din, founder of the Sufi order. Born mid­thirteenth century.  Safavids overthrown in 1722 by invading Afghan forces.  September 8 Ottoman Empire Overview:  multiethnic and multiculthral empire;  no nationalism (T+F; 19  Century Christians)  little control over the periphery. Millets Enjoyed certain rights and autonomy (1) empire organized around millets, religious communities; (2) responsible for collecting taxes and administering justice. Capitulations  Between Ottomans and the European Powers  Originally commercial treaties intended to stimulate trade: granted foreign  merchants extraterritoriality and exemption from tax. New privileges were  added as Ottoman power declined.    Slow Ottoman decline Reasons:  No European power wanted the other to get the territory (1) Congress of Vienna of 1815. European powers were busy restoring the pre­ Napoleonic system. (2) Russo­Austrian rivalry; (3) Anglo­French intervention on side of the Porte in the Crimean War 1853­1856 (Russian influence over Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Empire. French­Russian rivalry in Jerusalem).  Russians stayed out of Balkan politics for 20 years, came back and began more religious movements Reform (1) Janissaries and ‘ulama’ opposed reform; (2) French officers instructed the army; (3) permanent embassies established in Europe. Tanzimat (40­year reform plan/period)  Bulk of reform period focused on armed forces; ended up with a  constitution (1908­1911: New constitution established)  Reforms 1839­1876: (1) subjects equal before the law; everyone enjoyed the same rights, regardless  of ethnicity/religion (2) centralized tax system; (3) tax farming eliminated; (collect taxes, keep some based on compensation)  Shift to more authority in the centralized government  Germans would rather replace the French as instructors of the Army. Persia  Unfortunate enough to have powerful neighbors: Russia and Britain vied  for influence.  Saved by the rivalry (1) ended the country’s ability to expand and exact tribute; (2) inability to modernize militarily, administratively, and economically; (3) central government challenged by local tribal leaders. Change in Persia happened slower than in the Ottoman Empire. Reason: ‘ulama’ opposed reform. Egypt  Albanian commander Muhammad ‘Ali (1769­1849) sent by the Ottomans  to re­conquer Egypt from the French in 1801. (1) defeated the French and the Mamluks. (2) made Pasha of Egypt in 1805. Reforms: (1) French officers helped him modernize the army; (2) Frenchmen established schools and hospitals; (3) established Egyptian industries; (4) only marginal success b/c Egypt lacked raw materials for industrialization.


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