Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 3 Notes
Hist 462: History of the Middle East, Week 3 Notes Hist 462
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 462 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Juan Romero in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see History of the Middle East in History at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
September 6 Three centers in the Islamic world in the sixteenth century: 1. Mughal Empire o Most of Indian subcontinent 2. Safavid Empire o Prussia (1501)—Shii (convert or die.) 3. Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire: Conquest of Constantinople, 1453 C.E. Reasons for successful military campaigns in the sixteenth century: (1) more gunpowder weapons than any other army; (2) troops more regularly fed than other armies. Turks migrated and established their own empire in Eastern Turkey or Anatolio, in 1300 1453, Constantinople fell o Paved way for expansion o After late 1600s, power was in constant decline Through occupation of Egypt gained access to title of caliph. Sieges of Vienna: 1529 and 1683. Reason for successful administration of conquered territories: flexible administrative practices accommodated needs of different regions and cultures Nonintrusive to local runnings Accommodated different regions and cultures Principles of Ottoman governance: (1) the tradition of gaza, war against nonMuslims (2) legacy of urban Islamic civilization; (3) local custom; (4) division of society into rulers and ruled. Succession He who first secured the support of the court and the army became the next sultan. This practice was discontinued in the seventeenth century, as was the program of training princes. As a result the latter had no governing experience. Slave elite Devshirme system: procurement of slaves from among Christian subjects (converted to Islam) Religious establishment and lower and middle levels of bureaucracy composed of free Muslims only. Offspring of most talented slaves in leadership positions considered free Muslims. Janissaries: elite slave army; was paid regular salaries. Sipahis: provincial cavalrymen. Freeborn Muslims. Religious establishment: sheikh alIslam, highest religious official; oversaw appointment of qadis (judged) and madrasa teachers. 19 Century introduced secularization of school curriculum Millet system nonMuslim subjects organized into religious communities called millets; granted considerable autonomy; nonMuslims barred from service in the army; barred from becoming members of the ruling elite. Reasons for loss of Ottoman superiority External (1) penetration of European capital; (2) Ottoman raw materials exchanged for European manufactured goods; were placed at a disadvantage. (3) inflation; (4) capitulation agreementscommercial agreements; Europeans given more privileges (extraterritoriality) Internal (1) rule of incompetent sultans; (2) struggles over successions; (3) discord within the court (factions fighting) (4) inflation devastating effect on fixed salaries of state employees. Wars Treaty of Karlowitz (1699): concluded b/w Ottoman Empire and Austria, Poland, and Venice.War 16831697, Ottoman defeat. Ceded Hungary, Croatia, and Slovenia to Austria; Podolia to Poland, and Peloponnesus and most of Dalmatia to Venice. Russia gained Azov in a separate peace in 1700. Safavid Empire Shah Isma‘il (14871524; shah 15011524) Proclaimed himself shah in 1501. Twelver Shi‘ism official religion of the state (Originally it was Sunni) Safavids originally a Turcoman Sunni brotherhood. Created a more centralized government. Army not equipped with firearms. Mesopotamia a battleground for OttomanSafavid rivalry. Shah ‘Abbas the Great (15711629) (1) Built up a Christian slave army as a counterweight to the tribes; (2) Reconquered territory lost to the Ottomans, Uzbeks, Portuguese, and Mughals; (3) Moved capital to Isfahan; (4) transferred lands from tribal leaders to his own estates to finance the new army. Friction b/w Turcomans and Persians. The latter no right to exercise military command. Bases of Safavid power (1) theory of the divine right of Persian kings; (2) claimed to be Mahdi’s representatives on earth; (3) position of Safavid shahs as murshidekamil, i.e. perfect spiritual director of the Sufi order Safaviyya. Safaviyya Shaikh Safi alDin, founder of the Sufi order. Born midthirteenth century. Safavids overthrown in 1722 by invading Afghan forces. September 8 Ottoman Empire Overview: multiethnic and multiculthral empire; no nationalism (T+F; 19 Century Christians) little control over the periphery. Millets Enjoyed certain rights and autonomy (1) empire organized around millets, religious communities; (2) responsible for collecting taxes and administering justice. Capitulations Between Ottomans and the European Powers Originally commercial treaties intended to stimulate trade: granted foreign merchants extraterritoriality and exemption from tax. New privileges were added as Ottoman power declined. Slow Ottoman decline Reasons: No European power wanted the other to get the territory (1) Congress of Vienna of 1815. European powers were busy restoring the pre Napoleonic system. (2) RussoAustrian rivalry; (3) AngloFrench intervention on side of the Porte in the Crimean War 18531856 (Russian influence over Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Empire. FrenchRussian rivalry in Jerusalem). Russians stayed out of Balkan politics for 20 years, came back and began more religious movements Reform (1) Janissaries and ‘ulama’ opposed reform; (2) French officers instructed the army; (3) permanent embassies established in Europe. Tanzimat (40year reform plan/period) Bulk of reform period focused on armed forces; ended up with a constitution (19081911: New constitution established) Reforms 18391876: (1) subjects equal before the law; everyone enjoyed the same rights, regardless of ethnicity/religion (2) centralized tax system; (3) tax farming eliminated; (collect taxes, keep some based on compensation) Shift to more authority in the centralized government Germans would rather replace the French as instructors of the Army. Persia Unfortunate enough to have powerful neighbors: Russia and Britain vied for influence. Saved by the rivalry (1) ended the country’s ability to expand and exact tribute; (2) inability to modernize militarily, administratively, and economically; (3) central government challenged by local tribal leaders. Change in Persia happened slower than in the Ottoman Empire. Reason: ‘ulama’ opposed reform. Egypt Albanian commander Muhammad ‘Ali (17691849) sent by the Ottomans to reconquer Egypt from the French in 1801. (1) defeated the French and the Mamluks. (2) made Pasha of Egypt in 1805. Reforms: (1) French officers helped him modernize the army; (2) Frenchmen established schools and hospitals; (3) established Egyptian industries; (4) only marginal success b/c Egypt lacked raw materials for industrialization.
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