9/12 - 9/16 Art History 115 Professor Denny Lecture+Reading Notes
9/12 - 9/16 Art History 115 Professor Denny Lecture+Reading Notes ART-HIST 115
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tan-Tan Narcisse on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART-HIST 115 at University of Massachusetts taught by Walter Denny in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Visual Art, Artists, & Cultures in Fine Art at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
9/12/16 Art History 115 Professor W. Denny Lecture+Reading Notes What is Style? Style: the distinctive and characteristic way of making and arranging the forms of a work of art by which it may be assigned to a particular period, place, artist or period within an artist’s life, according to From cus to Zeus by James Smith Pierce. Intro: Visual Signals ● Manipulate people that looks at the image ● Are everywhere ● In terms of style, we recognize subconsciously the style of an object because of Visual Signals that denote: ■ Old ■ New ■ Culture (e.g.Egyptian) ■ Signature (i.e. an artist way of doing things) ■ Location ■ Age ■ Etc. How do you look at style? ● Time (i.e.earlier/later) ● Place (e.g. India/Egyptian) What is style of time? ● Early ○ A chair made with older materials e.g. wood ○ Simple design ● Later ○ Chair made with newer materials e.g. leather and steel ○ Complex design What is style of place? ● Two made in the exact same time ○ Chair made in Mass. USA ■ Wood ■ Cylindrical legs ■ Woven seat ○ Chair made in Palace of Versailles. France ■ Silk ■ Hard wood/ painted w/ gold ■ Ledge ➢ On looking chair (for poker) ● These two chairs can tell an enormous amount of information ○ The Elite in Mass.(1700) ■ Puritanical society ■ Personal comfort not tolerated ○ The Elite in France ■ Artist worked for comfort ■ Chair for card play ■ Price no object(woven silk) ● Chair said a lot about society, society tells a lot about chair What is the style of the individual artist? (more refined) ● If the design of an artist is recognizable then a name could be placed on these chairs ○ Since these chairs were common place or the fashion trend How does one recognize style? ( WARNING: not on exam, however a skill that should be mastered to do well on exam) ● Acute Visual Comparison (idea of database in mind) ○ Identifying the style of artwork by: ■ Time (when created ) ■ Place ( where it was created ) ■ Individual (who created it) ○ Making discriminating judgments What some vocab words of Style? ● The Artist attempt to make work seem 3D on a 2D surface ○ Shallow Pictorial Space (e.g. horizontal organization perpendicular to viewer, with figures alongside each other in a row, facing directly in front of viewer) ■ Tends to have even lighting ○ Deep Pictorial Space sometimes incorporated with vertical lines (e.g. lines and planes leading diagonal to the back of the painting/artwork ) ■ Tends to have theatrical lighting ○ Affecting Component of artwork ( the ability of the artwork to inspire an emotional reaction in viewer e.g. visceral images ) ■ Film ■ Opera ○ Linear Approach→the capture of almost all the impact in artwork by paying attention to details using in pencil or black and white ○ Painterly Approach→conceptualized in terms of color instead of lines ( basically similar effect as linear except with color) ○ Relationship of artwork to frame ■ How generous the space is ➢ Crowed ➢ Free o/ Open ● Stylization→the way an artist depict things with shortcuts ● Tactility→the ability of an artist to emphasize the different textures in the artwork (i.e.the touchy feely aspect Could the view touch or feel the cloth just by looking at it?) ● Motion→ ○ Static composition ➢ Plain ➢ Single focus (unified) ○ Dynamic composition ➢ Recession ➢ Multi. focus ● Sexual Response→style of human body changes ○ Has to do with the way we have been manipulated visually by ■ Artist ■ Media ■ Etc. ○ Different ways of looking at nature ( conditioned in this way [by the artist, Media, Etc.] ) ■ Is it beautiful? ■ Ugly? ■ Use to seeing it? ■ Seen it for the first time? What is the way people related to their visual environment? ○ Through the work of visual artist 9/14/16 Art History 115 Professor W. Denny Lecture+Reading Notes Sculpture Why should one man choose to create a work of sculpture rather than a painting? What is the fundamental difference in the way the sculptor gives form to his ideas/feelings? And the way of the painter? ● Sculptors haves an impulse to express work in 3D ● Painters work on 2D surface, yet consider space and depth while expressing themselves Painter ● Medium forces them to use illusion or suggestion. Medium: The physical material with which an artist works (marble, clay, ink, oil paint, steel, concrete etc.)according to J.S. Smithe in From Abacus to Zeus. Sculptor ● Has no restriction ● Medium is already in 3D Why should a piece of sculpture make us very conscious of spatial dimension, when many other objects which are 3D do not? ● A piece of sculpture creates aura Aura: an atmosphere in which it exists and in which every form seems particularly important. ● Aura is dependent on solid & space ● Solid object created space ● Created space acts upon the object What are the two general treatments of space? ● Closed space ○ Work tends to be confined ○ Exhibits inward form ○ Demands little of surrounding space ○ Individual parts we lanes creating movement from one part to another ○ Causes us to respond→to see the art as whole ○ Type of medium will allow for certain applications Plane: a flat surface...convenient for reducing complex 3D bodies for analyzing them ● Open space ○ Much larger ○ Expanding ○ Demands little of surrounding space ○ Relies on movement which relates to different parts of sculpture ○ As sculptor modulates movement within statue, he can also modulate point of view ■ Sculptor can control extent and character of surrounding space What are two possible way of achieving a sculpture? ● Subtract material (carving stone e.g. marble) ● Add material (e.g. made in clay or wax before cast in bronze) What are the four principal branches of technique? 1. Carving 2. Modeling 3. Casting 4. Construction Carving shaping by cutting away parts of the original block ● Common Materials ○ Wood ○ Stone ● Other Materials ○ Plaster ○ Metal ○ Ivory ○ Bone ○ Plastics ● Preparation ○ Draw guidelines on material ○ Draw 3D sketches of material ○ If mistake is made, artists changes intention ● Wood Materials for roughing out main form of work ○ Hatchet ○ Saw ○ Drill ○ Rasp ○ Chisels ○ Gouges ● Stone cutting ○ Sledge ○ Pick ○ Point ○ Various chisels For heavy labored projects, according to J.C. Talyer in Learning to Look, artists have intended to cut close to the final surface from the start. ● Must avoid splitting & fracture ● More specific tools are used when smoothing out irregularities. ● Wood materials for hewing out rough form ○ Chisel ○ Gouge ○ Knife ○ File ○ Vise (secure project in place) ○ Carpentry Tools ○ Engraving Tools ● Stone Materials for hewing ○ Points of hard steel ○ Steel hammer ○ Steel bush hammers ○ Tooth chisels (marble,limestone,other soft stone) ○ Drills ○ Saws ○ Gouges ○ Bullnose chisels ● Wood tools for smoothing surface ○ Files ○ Sandpaper ○ Wax ○ Oil ○ French oil ○ Shellac ○ Varnish ○ Paint ● Stone final finish ○ Rasps ○ Files ○ Finer Abrasive stones ● Soft stone Sculptures ○ Sandstone ○ Pumice stone ○ Crystallized oxalic acid ○ Putty powder ● Hardstone ○ Carborundum ○ Emery Powder ○ Extremely fine putty power ○ Oil color (optional) ● Stone Carver ○ Carve stone using machine ○ They use finished models of plaster from artists ○ they use a pointing machine Modeling: adding rather than taking away ● Materials allow artist freedom in shaping form ○ Clay ○ Wax ○ Plasticine ( Clay + Wax + Mineral oil) ● Built up by adding part to part ● Or the filling out of a preconstructed framework ● Tools ○ Hands ○ Various wood + wiremodeling tools ● For larger works, an armature is used Armature: a wooden upright with one or crossbars ● Clay, wax, plasticine, and plaster are temporary materials ○ Casting is the only way to make them permanent Casting:hardening process of modeling materials Simplified Version of Casting Process: 1. Carve wax 2. Mold 3. Hardened mold 4. Melted out wax 5. Pore in Bronze 6. Break mold ● Materials ○ Plaster ■ Easier to handle ■ Durable ■ Inexpensive ○ Bronze ■ Rarely used Construction: like a collage ● Brings observer into close contact ● Concerned with space ● Mobile (loosely linked shapes are arranged →will move in patterns of clanging rhythmic relationship) Style Through Time:The Greek Case The Beginning ● Tools ○ Before invention of metal tools, the idea of sculpting was close to impossible ■ The tools weren’t hard enough to cut stone ■ Nor strong enough resist repeated hits from hammer ○ Once metal tools were invented the realm of sculpting revolutionized ■ Stones like marble were able to be cut Dawn of Sculpting in Greece (2000 BCE) ● Cyclades West Coast (Greece Early Period) ○ Some region worshiped this deity ■ This deity is a female ■ Females are easier to carve ■ It is possible the faces were painted on ■ They’re from the island of Syros ● Characteristics of these figurines ○ Not more than a foot tall ○ Meant to be seen from the front ○ 3D piece of art when really 2D in conception ○ Placed in an architectural setting ○ Artist had no experience in sculpture ○ Artist of the time did not have “cuttingedge” tools 650 BCE ● Lady of Auxerre ○ About 2ft tall ○ Dugged up from france ○ Gots clothes on (skirt/cape) ○ Braids/Pigtails(hair is hard to depict, so they revert to a shorthand) ○ Stands on it’s own, (due to cylindrical shape of skirt) ○ Large eyes ○ Has Nose ○ Has mouth 20 30 years earlier ● Casting ● It was gift to a god ● Has longer neck ● Could have been holding a neck ● Broad muscular shoulders ● Powerful legs ● Male genitalia 600 BCE (kouros: youth) ● Becomes more 3D and less 2D ● Life sized ● Becomes more human because of the foot placement ● Sculptor are observing more ● Navel ● Lines between diaphragm and rib cage ● Inguinal crease/line ● Genitalia in right place ● Arms attached to body ● Figure looking forward ● Realistic legs ● Hair (dreadlocks) ● Linear aspect ( a lot of lines yet more humanlike) 570 BCE ● Lines are disappearing and resembles human flesh ● Body is smoother ● Next step in evolution of style 530 BCE (Kroisos: youngman) ● Neck is proportional ● Legs are more powerful ● Arms connected to the body ● Musculature is heavier ● Washboard abs ● Face is proportional 530480 BCE (Start of classical age of Greek Sculpture) Classical→ once achieved never goes out of style ● Kritios Boy ○ The standing posture improved ■ Contraposto: one weight bearing leg and and a nonweight bearing leg ○ Hair style changed ○ The eye sockets were cut into and filled in with white/color stone ○ The face is expressionless ○ Arms sculpted far from the body except for his left arm ○ Legs are completely free (more fragile) ● Riace ○ Around the same time as Kritios Boy ○ Made out of bronze ○ Metal statues doesn’t survive because they tended to be melted down for cannon balls ○ Found off the shores of Italy ○ Found with another statue (similar in build) 440 BCE ● Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) ○ Polykleitos is the sculptor of this piece ○ An athlete ○ Holding a javelin ○ Tree supports the sculpture ○ Ideal male physical type Essence of Classicism Noble simplicity and quiet grandeur Equilibrium It seems as if it can’t get any better 340 BCE (Late Classical Art) ● Story of Hermes and Dionysus ● Second Character (baby) ● Cape (help supports the statue) ● Interaction between figures ● Storytelling aspect ● Grapes could possibly be in the missing hand ● Sculptors figured out how to hold heavy objects such as the grapes while suspended in the air 300 BCE (Element of drama introduced) Story of Apollo ● Concerning Daphne ● Gestures become very expressive ● Cloak holds up the art Athlete Scraping off his sweat 50 BCE ( Hellenistic Period) ● Story of Laocoon and two sons with the Trojan ● More Expression ● More engage story ● Story of the Trojan War ● Statute of a drunken Satyr ● Greek boxer ● Injured Barbarian Political Statue ● Has a portrait on the face ● The face is of Augustus ● Statue of Victory ● Takes Greek Ideal 9/16/16 Art History 115 Professor W. Denny Lecture+Reading Notes Style and Culture: Greece, Egypt, India (style of place) Egypt ● The architecture of pyramids made of limestone ● Sculpture made of Diorite ○ Both structures are Permanent , ○ Artist is trying to make work permenant to honor the Rulers ○ They’re also heavy ○ Large (hard to lose) ● Society does not change ○ Stable ○ Conservative ○ Understand how the land works ○ Traditional Oriented ○ Massive ○ Ponderous (slow) ○ Always revert backs to it’s traditional roots whenever there is an attempt at change ● The Son of third pyramid, menkaure, with wife ○ Material is hard stone ○ Around 2400 BCE ● Recognizable portraits ● Specific to people they show ● No psychological interaction ● They’re very impassive ● Symmetrical India ● Khajuraho Temple ○ Small interior ○ Various artifacts for religious reasons ○ Hinduism ● Statues of Khajuraho Temple ○ Errotic ○ Sensuous ○ Emotional ○ Fragile ● Paradox in Art ○ Works of art don’t move, yet there are works of art that implies movement ○ Both images have movement and energy ○ Females are illustrated as having large breast and hips ○ Small waist Greece ● Temple ○ Small interior ○ Made from marble ○ Size and scale ( two different concept...something can appear big but seem small, while something can appear small and seem majestic, large, big, etc) ● Relief Sculpture ○ 2D, 3D, Sculpture. ■ 3D figures only meant to be seen from front or 2D view ● Discus Thrower ○ Sculptor of this piece is Miron ○ Sculptor captures the instant of pause ○ Face is impassive ● Dynamic Society ○ Fast development of style ○ Values Greek form ○ Classical greek Art ■ Has an effect on Western design
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