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Week 4 Notes

by: Dori DeBrum

Week 4 Notes POLS 241

Dori DeBrum

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Ideologies, Political Economy, and State and Markets
Comparative Government and Politics (GT-SS1)
Marcela Velasco
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dori DeBrum on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 241 at Colorado State University taught by Marcela Velasco in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Comparative Government and Politics (GT-SS1) in Political Science at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 09/17/16
1. Ideology a. Political values regarding the fundamental goals of politics b. Coherent set of ideas about politics, what constitutes political legitimacy and the highest political values i. The reality on the ground is different from the ideology c. Provide an action program, impact mass political behavior, are used to "save time" d. Social Democracy: lessen social inequality 2. Political Attitudes and Ideologies a. Attitudes: ideas about the necessary scope and pace of political change i. Words like radical, conservative b. Ideologies: a set of values about the fundamental goals 3. Liberalism a. Limit state's role in politics, society, and economny b. People, as individuals, pursue their own interests c. Inspires liberal democracy i. Ex: the UK, the US d. Supports competition, participation e. Protecting private property, defending rule of law, the govt. should be conditioned by multiple organized groups f. Anarchy does not necessarily constrain behavior g. Cooperation possible and perhaps necessary h. Absolute and mutual gains i. Security along with prosperity are state goals j. Intentions can be as important as capabilities k. Institutions are useful and essential to the functioning of the system 4. Communism (Marxism) a. Recognize the primacy of conflict in politics b. reflects the tension between the haves and the have-nots c. State must ensure that wealth is shared (no private property) d. True liberty requires economic equality e. Rejects idea that personal freedom will ensure prosperity for the majority f. Inspired 20th century communist states i. Soviet Union, China, Cuba 5. Social Democracy (The politics of "compromise and moderation" a. Balance freedom and equality i. Strong markets and role for private ownership ii. Strong state to regulate industry and engage in social spending b. Achieve social change c. Inspires many modern European states i. Ex: Germany and the Scandinavian states 6. Review a. Political ideologies differ from political attitudes i. Notice the different understandings of "liberal" in the US context b. Main political ideologies i. Classical liberalism ii. Communism iii. Social Democracy 7. Political Economy a. Analyzes the relationship between states and economies and how people use governments to improve their economic welfare or increase their benefits b. Study the way people allocate scarce resources (money, wealth, human capital) i. Concerned with the understanding the relationship between states and markets, voters, their incomes, and electoral outcomes, and congressional politics and budgetary decision c. Critical components to all economies: i. Markets: interaction between forces of supply and forces of demand 1. Way of allocating resources and private goods (shoes, computers, etc) 2. Not as good as providing public goods which is provided by the government 3. public good is something that does not exclude people from utilizing (Ex: defense/ security) 4. Determining what people want ii. Property: goods and service that are owned by an individual or a group 1. Exists if someone helps you protect them 2. If one own property, one has rights over those resources. 3. One needs property to participate in market 8. States and Markets a. States shape the economy i. Spending and taxing 1. Tax in order to get the money to function 2. Taxing is a costly process because nobody is fond of taxing 3. Government collects 20%-30% ii. Creating money iii. Regulating markets b. Other objective: i. Reduce inequality, political stability, and economic growth c. Advantages of regulation i. Generate state revenue ii. Foster local industry iii. Protect local jobs iv. Keep wealth within the country d. Advantages of free trade i. Promote competition ii. Keep costs of goods low iii. Stimulate domestic innovation in competitive areas 9. Spending and Taxing a. Spending is generally on: i. Public goods: security, education, health ii. Transfers: welfare, cash transfers to the poor (housing subsidies, food stamps), social security (pensions) b. Social expenditures i. Domestic programs designed for social goals 1. Ex: education ii. Includes both pubic goods and transfers 1. Major debates because they are very costly iii. Controversial due to expense 10. Monetary Policy a. Must reflect real balance between supply and demand to avoid: i. Inflation: if too much $$ circulates, it becomes less valuable and the same goods will simply cost more 1. Germany in the 30s ii. Deflations: if not enough $$ circulates, people will not be able to buy things as easily, limiting growth 1. Government goes into debt 2. It may kill productivity which can affect jobs 11. Regulating Markets a. States limit commerce i. Rules, bans, production techniques b. States govern the organization of firms i. Allowing or banning monopolies (ex: railroad) ii. How films raise money (Ex: stock markets) c. International Commerce i. Most countries limit the rights of citizens to buy from or sell to foreigners (done through tariffs, quotas, capital controls) 12. Political Economic Systems a. Role of states i. Limited Intervention: liberalism --> social democracy-->mercantilism and communism :Extensive Intervention


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