Culture and Media
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at Ball State University taught by Fang Gong (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Principles of Sociology in Sociology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
SOC 100 1 Chapter 3: Culture and Media (p.73-109). Definitions of Culture. Culture= Human-Nature. The sum of the culture categories and concepts we recognize in addition to our beliefs, behaviors, and practices. Everything but nature. Distinction between what is natural and what is modified/ created by humans and follows the laws of the state. Culture= (Superior) Man- (Inferior) Man. Colonialism led to increased interaction with non-westerners. o Alternative ways of living. o Material rules. o Styles of dress. o Building cities. o Foodstuffs. The way we perform task/ lived life was a historical product of specific cultural influences. o Ethnocentrism- encapsulates the sense of taken-for-granted superiority in the context of cultural practices and attitudes. Long history of racism does have some roots in these ideas. Culture= Man- Machine. Matt Arnold (1822-88). o Redefined culture as the pursuit of perfection and broad knowledge of the world in contrast to narrow self-centeredness and material gain. Plato. o Culture is an ideal standing in opposition to the real world. The ideal woman is a fluid notion changing from one place to another and across time periods. Material VS. Nonmaterial Culture. Culture is a way of life created by humans, whatever is not natural. o Nonmaterial. Values. Beliefs. Behaviors. Social norms. o Material. SOC 100 2 Everything that is part of our constructed, physical environment, including technology. It is what feels normal/ natural to us but is socially produced. What we do not notice at home but would spot in a foreign context. It is a way of organizing our experience. o The language we speak directly influences the way we think about and experience the world. o Meanings are embedded in a wider sense of cultural understanding. Ideology- a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect. o Science and religion are both ideological frameworks. Cultural relativism- taking into account the difference across cultures without passing judgement/ assigning value. o Ruth Benedict coined the term (1934). o Important for businesses that operate on a global scale. Cultural scripts- modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural. By understanding the significance of events, we can better understand our lives. Subcultures- groups united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the members of that group. o Culture affects us by shaping our values. Americans hold tightly to the rags-to-riches dream of triumph over adversity. General social stratification. Racial segregation. Sexism. Differential access to health care. Education. Norms- how values are put into play. Socialization- internationalization of society’s values, beliefs, and norms. Reflection Theory- culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere. o Culture objects reflects the material labor and relationships of production that went into them. Culture that justifies given relations in production. o Rejected because it is unidirectional; culture has no impact on society. Media. Any format/ vehicle that carry, present/communicate information. Played a huge role in the Civil Rights movement. Reflect culture and work to produce the very culture they represent. o Hegemony- “Refers to historical processes in which a dominant group exercises ‘moral and intellectual leadership’ throughout society by winning the voluntary ‘consent’ of popular masses”. Getting them to go along with the status quo. SOC 100 3 The people modeled by the culture in which they live, or do they actively participate in shaping the world around them? The Media Life Cycle. We see how people create media, how the media shape culture in which people live, how the media reflects the culture in which they exist, how individuals and groups use the media as their own means to shape, redefine and change culture. Textual Analysis- analysis of the content of media in its various forms. o We experience text through the lens of our own critical, interpretive, and analytical process. The media are produced by human beings, all of whom have their own biases. Media Effects. Short-term Long- term A= advertising. A B B= deliberate, long-term media campaign. C= short-term, unintended consequences: Unintended Intended video games/ music. D= long-term, unintended consequence. C D Where do Stereotypes Come From? The media continue to reflect and perpetuate racist ideologies. o Something obvious. o Continued negative portrayals of minorities and hypothesize about the cumulative effects. o As a culture, we grossly exaggerate the frequency of rarely occurring events, often through amplificationor attention from political, economical and cultural issues that were either taboo or too difficult to talk about toward sensational events. Representation of women. o Maimed, slices, raped, and deformed in advertising images. o Not just reflect the underlying culture that produces it but it also creates desires and narratives that enter women’s/ men’s lives with causal force. SOC 100 4 Political Economy of the Media. As corporate control of the media becomes more and more centralized, the concern is that the range of opinions available will decrease and that corporate censorship will further compromise the already-tarnished integrity of the mainstream media. America is described as a consumer culture. o Consumerism- belief that happiness and fulfillment can be achieved through the acquisition of material possessions. The increasingly presence of advertising in middle and high schools. o Creation of a self- sustaining consumer culture among children. o Culture jamming- act of turning media against themselves.
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