CHM1040 Week 3 Notes
CHM1040 Week 3 Notes CHM1040
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freya Kniaz on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM1040 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Andrea Matti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Chemistry Skills and Reasoning in Chemistry at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
CHM1040 Week 3 Chapter Four Continued • Know the above and be able to use it. • The periodic table shows every known element in order of increasing atomic order ◦ Groups are in vertical columns and have similar chemical properties ◦ Periods are horizontal columns on the periodic table • Remember the staircase: everything to the left are metals, everything to the right are nonmetals and along the staircase are metalloids (steps 2 -5) • Physical properties of metals ◦ Efficient conduction of heat and electricity ◦ Malleability: they can be hammered into thin sheets ◦ Ductility: they can be pulled into wires ◦ Alustrous (shiny) appearance • Physical properties of nonmetals ◦ Lack properties of metals ◦ Exhibit much variation in properties ◦ Can be gases, liquids, or solids • Metalloids show a mixture of metal and nonmetal physical porperties • Most elements are very reactive meaning their electrons like to “mingle” with other electrons • Elements are not generally found in uncombined form; however, there are exceptions… ◦ Noble metals – gold, platinum and silver ◦ Noble gases – Group 8 • The most reactive elements have +/- one or two electrons; generally as you go left along the periodic table the elements become more reactive • Diatomic elements: molecules that exist as two atoms bonded together in nature ◦ I Bring Clay For Our New Home ◦ Can be homonuclear (H2) or heternuclear (NO) • Allotropes: Different structures of a given element ◦ Example: Solid carbon occurs in three forms: Diamond, Graphite and Buckminsterfullerene • Elements give or take electrons to form ions ◦ Ions are atoms with a charge, positive or negative ◦ Metals tend to form positive ions, called cation, while nonmetals form anions • Anions are named by using the root of the atom name followed by the suffix –ide. Cations are named by just stating the metal name • Ions combine to form ionic compounds. • Properties of ionic compounds: High melting points, Conduct electricity (if melted or dissolved in water) • When combining cations and anions to write a chemical formula, the cation is named first with the full name of the metal ◦ The anion is then named second with the –ide ending ◦ The charge on both elements must equal zero for neutral molecules, or molecules with no charge The exam on Friday is Ch. 1 – 4 so the following notes are for Exam II. Check blackboard for seating arrangment, bring a non-scientific calculator, and you must write in pen or you will get a zero! Chapter Five: Nomenclature • There are two types of binary compounds (compounds composed of two elements) ◦ Binary Ionic Compounds: metal and nonmetal ▪ Type I compounds: metal present forms only one cation (group I and II metals) • Rules for naming: the cation is always names first and then anion second, a simple cation takes its name from the name of the element, and a simple anion is named by taking the first part of the element name (the root) and adding -ide ▪ Type II compounds: metal present can form two or more cations with different charges (d-block transition metals) • Rules for naming: the cation is always named first and the anion second and because the cation can assume more than one charge, the charge is specified by a roman numeral in arentheses ◦ Binary Covalent Compounds: nonmetal and nonmetal ▪ Rules for naming: first element in the formula is named first (full element name is used), the second element is named as though it were an anion (-ide) • Prefixes are used to denote the numbers of atoms present (exception: the prefix mono- is never used for naming the first element • You will need to be able to name the common polyatomic ions...MEMORIZE THEM ◦ NH4 is ammonium (+) ◦ CO3 is carbonate (2-) ◦ NO2 is nitrite (-) ◦ HCO3 is hydrogen carbonate (-) ◦ NO3 is nitrate (+) ◦ ClO is hypochlorite (-) ◦ SO3 is sulfite (2-) ◦ ClO2 is chlorite (-) ◦ SO4 is sulfate (2-) ◦ ClO3 is chlorate (-) ◦ HSO4 is bisulfate (-) ◦ ClO4 is perchlorate (-) ◦ OH is hydroxide (-) ◦ C2H3O2 is acetate (-) ◦ CN is cyanide (-) ◦ MnO4 is permanganate (-) ◦ PO4 is phosphate (3-) ◦ Cr2O7 is dichromate (2-) ◦ HPO4 is hydrogen phosphate (2-) ◦ CrO4 is chromate (2-) ◦ H2PO4 is dihydrogen phosphate (-) ◦ O2 is peroxide (2-) • Name polyatomic ions in formulas with their name as listed above. (NH4C2O3O2 is ammonium acetate)
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