Comparative Animal Behavior Notes 2
Comparative Animal Behavior Notes 2 PSYC 353-01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tori on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 353-01 at Montclair State University taught by Pierre Leon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Comparative Animal Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at Montclair State University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Key points in chapter one: Female lions nursing offspring that is not their own and adult birds who will take care of eggs that do not belong to them are clearly Darwinian Puzzles If adaptation is the product of natural selection, the trait will raise the reproductive success of individuals In order for Darwinian natural selection to cause evolutionary change, a population must contain individuals that differ unless there is variation, parents cannot pass on advantageous traits The rarer of two hereditarily different phenotypes can be considered an adaptation when the rare phenotype becomes more common from one generation to the next because of its positive effect on individual fitness On the Origin of the Species is the book that ignited the field of animal behavior Natural selection is an unguided and unconscious process of reproductive competition All conditions (heredity, variation and differences) must be met for evolutionary change Evolutionary theory gives us a scientific study point in animal behavior Darwinian puzzles are seen as counter intuitive Infanticide is adaptive because it provides the means for an animal to acquire a reproductive advantage Biologists deal with the puzzles by developing possible explanations based on Natural selection and using the theory of Natural selection to justify the surprising behavior to be a positive and beneficial trait for the species Chapter 2: Behavioral Ecology and the Evolution of Altruism Eusocial – communities, usually among insects, where a majority of the members do not reproduce; with insects, it is usually left up to a queen bee to solely reproduce for the species. Altruism – a behavior that may not benefit an individual, but will benefit the species as a whole; for example how a bee will sting a potential predator even though it means their vertebrate will be pulled out with the stinger, or the grenade ant will literally break open their abdomens, which releases a gluey substance to slow down intruders in order to defend the rest of the colony. Intelligent design theory – the idea that species demonstrate altruism because that is how a higher being created the species to work together. Because religion is incorporated into this theory, it is widely rejected since it does not allow scientific investigation. The idea with this theory is that an insect that gives its life for the colony will not be able to pass down its altruism to future generations, so altruistic behavior is not a factor of adaptation, it is just something mysteriously ingrained in all members of the species. Group selection – theory that groups or species with altruistic individuals are more likely to survive than those without altruists, which ultimately leads to the evolution of group-benefitting altruism Indirect selection (kin selection) – theory proposed since obviously natural selection did not apply to altruistic species or sterile members of colonies. Sterile ants, bees, and termites are a part of a community where only certain insects are required to reproduce and the sterile members are meant to be workers. Indirect selection would mean that the parents of a sterile insect would keep reproducing to create more insects with the same genes as the sterile one. The example here is that if you kill a cow who provided really good meat, you have to get the parents to reproduce to have a similar offspring. Coefficient of relatedness – chances that an offspring will inherit the desirable gene or allele from its parents. Fitness – number of genes contributed to the next generation. Indirect fitness – enhanced output of reproducing in order to produce an offspring with the desired behaviors. Direct fitness – an individual reproducing to pass on their own desirable traits. Inclusive fitness – a measure of what an individual passed on to the next generation. Behavior traits – hereditary behavioral strategies. Hamilton’s rule – a gene for altruism will only spread if the indirect fitness leads to more of the relatives with the altruistic gene were saved by an altruistic member’s actions to cause the trait to be adaptive. Haploid – having one set of chromosomes as found in male ants, bees, and wasps. Diploid – having two sets of chromosomes like the female counterparts of ants, bees, and wasps, which means at least one set of chromosomes will be from the female in the offspring. Theory of descent with modification – the idea that instead of the theory of natural selection, this is Darwin’s other theory that rather than species changing because of the genes that were passed on, instead species evolved because the genetic makeup would change slightly with each generation and this could not be avoided. Phylogeny – evolutionary tree of a species that derived from a common ancestor, which represented the evolutionary history
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