Notes from Week 1: Lectures 1 and 2
Notes from Week 1: Lectures 1 and 2 BIO 150-E
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Violet Wallerstein on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 150-E at Drew University taught by Caroline Maier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at Drew University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Lecture 1: The Process of Science Natural History: using observations to learn patterns Experimentation: manipulating a setting to try and learn new information Facts: Data collected by our senses caused by Truth ● Facts are specific and often contain numbers A theory is a hypothesis that has been proven again and again over time. It is our best idea of the Truth. Science is a way of understanding the world. It develops and tests explanations using natural explanations, not supernatural explanations like religion or magic. Law: where you put many facts together to make general observations. Laws are based on what we perceive with our sense Biology is the study of the structure and function of nature. Ecology is the study of the structure and function of nature at its most complex level. The more complex something is, the more variability there is among the given units. There is a need for statistics to identify true patterns in a sea of variation. Lecture 2: Introduction to Ecology Ecology is the study of the structure and function of nature at its most complex and variable level. In ecology, structure is the abundance and distribution of organisms. The function is the interactions organisms have with each other and the physical environment. Levels at which ecology is studied: ● Individual: studying adaptations that determine where an organisms can live. How the organism keeps homeostasis. ● Population: a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place and interacting with each other. ○ Deme is a small local population ○ Two main interactions between members of population ■ Mating ■ Competition ● Intraspecific: competing with the same species ● Interspecific: competing with a different speciesp ● Community: a group of different species living in the same place and interacting ○ Four main interactions ■ Competition (interspecific) ■ Predation ■ Parasitism (no death outright) ■ Mutualism (each helping the other) ● Ecosystems: interactions between living communities and the nonliving aspects of the environment. ○ Two main interactions ■ Energy flow ■ Cycling of materials Extirpation: when a local population dies out but the species still exists elsewhere Extinction: when an entire species dies out Reasons for Golden Toad extinction at various levels of ecology: ● Individual/physiological: The Golden Toad was highly specialized with specific breeding requirements. Specialized species are especially vulnerable to extinction. ● Population: Endemic: only one place where it lives. The Golden Toad was endemic and small populations especially with a narrow range are very vulnerable to extinction. ● Ecosystem: Weather was hot and dry in Monteverde in the 80s (fact) killing the Golden Toad tadpoles (hypothesis) ● Community: Day and night temperatures were more similar, which helps breed the Chytrid Fungi that infects and kills frogs The Cloud Forest community in Monteverde changed ● Lowland species moved up the mountain ● Mountaintop species died
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