×

### Let's log you in.

or

Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!

×

or

## PHI2010 Week 2 Notes

by: Lauren Carstens

30

0

4

# PHI2010 Week 2 Notes PHI2010

Marketplace > Florida State University > PHI2010 > PHI2010 Week 2 Notes
Lauren Carstens
FSU
GPA 4.0

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

×
Unlock Preview

This week, we have been working through the Cosmological Argument.
COURSE
Intro to Philosophy
PROF.
Dr. Clarke
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
4
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Department

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHI2010 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Clarke in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.

×

## Reviews for PHI2010 Week 2 Notes

×

×

### What is Karma?

#### You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/18/16
The Cosmological Argument -This does not tell us if there is a first being or finite amount of beings, but it does say that there can not only be dependent beings  1. There exists some beings  2. Every being that exists must be either a dependent being or a self- existent being  3. It cannot be the case that every being that exists is a dependent being  -----  4. Therefore, there exists a self-existent being o The argument is a posteriori  We only know what we can draw on experience o And it is a deductive argument  If the arguments are true, we can be certain the conclusion Is true  We need additional argument to show this self-existent being is unique and all perfect (it does not bring us to believe it is God)  Dependent Being(DB): A thing whose existence is due to the activity of another being (or beings) o It exists because of the activity of another being o Examples are easy to come by  Me, planet Earth, Strozier  Self-Existent Being (SB): A thing whose existence is due to its own nature, whose existence follows from its essence o Its essence is to exist o Its nature explains why it exists o Examples?  Nope  Must it be that every being that exists is either a dependent being or a self-existent being? o Uncaused being(UB): A being whose existence isn’t due to anything at all  Not it’s nature to exist  May be around forever but nothing brought it into existence  There’s no explanation as to why it exists  Is it possible for something to exist and its existence not be due to anything at all? o Why isn’t it possible? o Proponents of the Cosmological Argument o The Principle of Sufficient Reason(PSR)  For everything, there must be a sufficient reason  Reasons can be causes, explanations  Part a of PSR or PSRa:  For every being that exists, there must be a sufficient reason or an explanation why it exists rather than not  If PSRa is true, then there cannot exist an uncaused being  If PSRa is true, then premise 2 of the Cosmological Argument is true: o Every being that exists must be either a dependent being or a self-existent being  Why Part 2 of the Cosmological Argument relies on part of PSR o We’ll need to return to consider whether PSRa is true  Premise 3: It cannot be the case that every being that exists is a dependent being o Why can’t It be that there are DBs existing now, brought about by DBs existing earlier, brought about by DBs existing earlier yet still, and so on, infinitely, without any first DB? And that’s all there is?  We might want to say: There must be a first one  Why? Think of the integers, both positive and negative o There is no first one o Why can’t the chain of DBs be like that? o PSRa does not rule this out as a possibility  For if the sequence of DBs goes back without beginning, having no first member, then for every one of those DBs, there is a reason why it exists rather than not  It exists due to the activity of other DBs o Proponents of the Cosmological Argument appeal to a second part of PSR  PSRb:  For every positive fact, there must be a sufficient reason, an explanation of why it is so rather than not so  Examples of positive facts o The fact that grass is green o The fact that you are in Florida o The fact that 2 is greater than 1  PSRb says that for every positive fact, there must be a sufficient reason, an explanation why it is so rather than not so  Understand that if PSRb is true, premise 3 of the Cosmological Argument has to be true  If there is an infinite sequence of DBs, then there is this positive fact  There exists DBs  positive fact  If PSRb is true, and if it is a positive fact that there exist DBs: then there must be an explanation of why this is so  No DB can provide an explanation of why there exist DBs rather than not  DBs cannot explain themselves  So there must exist something other than a DB o That is, it cannot be the case that every being that exists is a DB because DBs cannot explain themselves and DBs need an explanation o Ex: No bird can provide an explanation of why there exist birds rather than not  One bird might be able to explain the existence of one other bird, but not why there are birds rather than not  Birds are DBs, none are self explanatory  No bird can explain its own existence  Thus, if PSRb is true, then premise 3 of the cosmological argument is true  So is PSRb true? o Review  What is a dependent being?  Existences relies on something else  What is a self-existent being?  A being that exists because it is its nature to exist  It exists because it must  What is an uncaused being?  A being exists, but is not caused by anything  It doesn’t exist because it is its nature  State the two parts of the Principle of Sufficient Reason  A: For every thing, there must be a reason for its existence rather than not o This can be satisfied if there is only DBs so this does not tell us that premise 3 is true  B: For every positive fact that exists, there must be a reason why it is so rather than not o A positive fact does not have any negative words  Explain how premise 2 of the Cosmological Argument relies on PSRa  Every being is either a DB or SB because if there was only DBs, nothing could explain them because a DB can not explain itself there has to be something other than a DB  Explain how premise 3 of the Cosmological Argument relies on PSRb  Every being can not be a DB because a DB cannot explain itself and it is a positive fact that DBs exist, so something else must exist to explain the DBs  So is PSR true and how can we know? o Supporters of PSR have typically taken it to be an a priori truth  One that can be known independently of what we learn from experience (just by thinking) o They’ve commonly said either it’s self evident or that it can be demonstrated a priori from self-evident principles  Something is self evident if it is evidently true and the evidence for its truth comes just from considering the proposition itself  Just consider it and then it will be clearly true  Ex: 1<2 o You don’t need to test anything, just consider it and you know it’s true  Generally, when a proposition is self-evident, anyone who understands what the proposition says and considers it attentively without bias can see that it’s true o PSR does not pass this test o It is not a good candidate for a self-evident truth o When you understand it and consider it without bias, some people still do not believe it  By means of an argument where the premises is self evident

×

×

### BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

×

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

## Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

#### "Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

#### "I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

Forbes

#### "Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over \$1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!
×

### Refund Policy

#### STUDYSOUP CANCELLATION POLICY

All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email support@studysoup.com

#### STUDYSOUP REFUND POLICY

StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here: support@studysoup.com

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to support@studysoup.com